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KASHIM IBRAHIM FOUNDATION – Uniting & preparing Nigeria’s youths for leadership

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‘’Nasir Ahmad El-Rufai on Twitter: “It is my pleasure to unveil the 16 young Nigerians selected for the third cohort of the Kashim Ibrahim Fellowship, our leadership capacity building programme for young people. We look forward to welcoming them to Kaduna next month… https://t.co/iu8w4OnJkk https://t.co/3cS6ROgG3X”

We followed up on this lead that naturally aroused curiosity given what many term ‘’The Nigerian Question’’ What is this all about? Many Nigerians don’t know who Kashim Ibrahim was; not to talk about a Foundation instituted in his memory. We had believed that the list of beneficiaries on this gesture would be populated by northerners for the simple reason of the position of Kashim Ibrahim in Nigeria’s First Republic.  Sir Kashim Ibrahim,  post-independence Governor of the Northern Region (1962-1966) who was known for his passion for education and selfless leadership which he demonstrated not only as Governor, but also as a Minister at various times. Without any doubt, Kashim Ibrahim deserves that honour of being celebrated just like Ooni Adesoji Aderemi, first Ceremonial governor of Western Region of Nigeria was remember today on the occasion of the fortieth anniversary of his transition.

THE KASHIM IBRAHIM FOUNDATION:  The Kashim Ibrahim Fellowship (KIF) is a one-year non-partisan leadership training programme for young Nigerians between the age of 25-35 years. The one-year Fellowship aims to create a network of high potential young Nigerians who are expected to rise to top leadership positions in the public sector and other spheres of activity over the next decade. Established in 2018, KIF is an initiative of the Kaduna State Government (KDSG).  The Fellowship’s objective is to develop and nurture leadership ability across Nigeria, with specific focus on the promising leaders of the future. It is our belief that this one-year programme would help establish a strong understanding of good governance in Fellows in addition to providing a structure that would help steer them towards active participation in and a commitment to public service and informed leadership in Nigeria.

MISSION: As indicated in Wikipedia and on the Foundation’s website,  ‘’The overall mission of this non-partisan programme, as envisioned by Governor Nasir el-Rufai, is in his words, “to raise the next generation of leaders who will most likely be absorbed into the Nigerian public sector having had a first-hand experience of its workings and challenges”. This Fellowship aims to change the perception of young Nigerians Sir Shettima Kashim Ibrahim, KCMG, CBE  (10 June 1910 – 25 July 1990)  was a Kanuri politician who was head of the Native Administration in Borno and was a minister for Social Services in the 1950s. He held the traditional title of Waziri of the Emirate of Borno after two previous Waziris had been forced to resign as a result of scandals in the Borno local administration. He was a close associate of Sir  Ahmadu Bello.

WHY THE FOUNDATION: Inaugurating the Third Cohort of the Foundation a few days ago, Mallam Nasir el Rufai explained that ‘’the Kaduna State Government values young people. We have appointed many youths and vested them with responsibility to help deliver progressive outcomes for our people. We are persuaded that sustained mentorship is an effective path to raising effective leaders and public servants. In 2017, we decided to institutionalise a programme to contribute to building youth capacity through intellectual stimulation and practical exposure to the workings and challenges of public service. We established the Kashim Ibrahim Fellowship Programme as a deliberate investment in building leadership capacity among our youths.  The first set of fellows resumed in August 2018,  after a selection process that was rigorous and based on merit.’’

He continued: ‘’By the time of their graduation in July 2019, these 16 fellows, from all over Nigeria, had impressed us with their energy, zeal, talent and ability.  The best graduating fellow in the pioneer set, Jemimah Jatau, has already been admitted as a Mason Fellow, and to study for an MPA at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government.  The second set of fellows resumed in August 2019. They have lived up to the hopes that inspired the fellowship. A significant chunk of their programme time has fallen within the uncertainties created by the Covid-19 pandemic, but they have adapted magnificently.  The 16 fellows selected by the Governing Board for the third cohort have been selected based on the high standards set by the first two sets of fellows. ‘’Contrary to our plans, we are unable to expand the annual intake of fellows to 24 this year due to the disruptions unleashed by Covid-19.’’

PROGRAMME The young fellows spend their first few days in the programme in seminars and discussions to introduce them to the larger issues of leadership and the particular details of how the Kaduna State Government works. They will afterwards be assigned to senior officials across the government. b The Governing Board announces the names of successful candidates which is named after Kashim Ibrahim, who was Governor of the Northern Region. The fellows emerge from numerous applications submitted online to the Kashim Ibrahim Fellows. The Steering Committee selects entries for the next stage during which their CVs, essays and letters of recommendation are assessed. The top candidates are then invited to submit video entries of their responses to three questions. The  most impressive entries are then forwarded to the Governing Board which selects the final 16.

The board, which comprises 16 members is chaired by Dele Olojede, a multiple award-winning journalist with First Bank Plc chairperson, Ibukun Awosika as member. Members of the board include Clara Ejembi, a professor at Ahmadu Bello University who was named the vice-chairperson; Ibukun Awosika, an indigene of Ibadan and the chairperson of First Bank of Nigeria; Hadiza Bala Usman, managing director, Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA); Segun Adeniyi, chairman of THISDAY editorial board; Maryam Uwais, special adviser to the president on social investments, and Ndidi Nwuneli, managing partner of Sahel Consulting. Other members are Muhammad Sani Abdullahi, chief of staff to the governor; Kadaria Ahmed, a journalist; Lola Shoneyin, an author; Asue Ighodalo, a lawyer; Jimi Lawal, an aide of the governor; Japheth Omojuwa, an activist; Bilya Bala and a representative of the Kashim Ibrahim family. The pioneer set of 16 young persons, selected from all over Nigeria, resumed in August 2018 and completed the 12-month fellowship in July 2019.

THE LESSONS:  We perceive two important lessons in this development/gesture. First are the gains from Nigeria’s diversity and dispassionate conduct by the ruling class.  A former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Nigeria, Hon. Justice Modibbo Alfa Belgore, CJN rtd once pointed out that the nation’s problems since independence have been caused by the elite and not the various constitutions that have been operated, noting that the country has the potential to be great: “Nigeria is a beautiful country, the pride of the black race. The present problems are the results of instability; had democratic governance not been terminated in 1966, we would have crossed the rubicon into developed nation, not underdeveloped nation”. As submitted in my book: ‘Nigeria; An Insider’s Reflections on the Nigerian Polity’,  ‘’it is abundantly clear that the groundwork for the failure of the first democratic experiment was laid even before independence, with political party leaders fanning embers of ethnicity and other issues which divided, rather than unite the country. It is appropriate, therefore, for the nation to review the blueprint of the constitution that would guide relationships and conducts. One highly contentious development that has to be accorded particular attention is indigeneship. The unrests and widespread disturbances in many parts of the country are attributable to this issue ethno-religious matters, citizenship, indigeneship and related issues that must be thoroughly and critically examined within the context of federalism.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

‘’Nasir Ahmad El-Rufai on Twitter: “It is my pleasure to unveil the 16 young Nigerians selected for the third cohort of the Kashim Ibrahim Fellowship, our leadership capacity building programme for young people. We look forward to welcoming them to Kaduna next month… https://t.co/iu8w4OnJkk https://t.co/3cS6ROgG3X” /’’

 

We followed up this lead that naturally aroused curiosity given what many term ‘’The Nigerian Question’’ What is this all about? Many Nigerians don’t know who Kashim Ibrahim was; not to talk about a Foundation instituted in his memory. We had believed that the list of beneficiaries on this gesture would be populated by northerners for the simple reason of the position of Kahim Ibrahim in Nigeria’s First Republic.  Sir Kashim Ibrahim, the first post-independence Governor of the Northern Region (1962-1966) who was known for his passion for education and selfless leadership which he demonstrated not only as Governor, but also as a Minister at various times. Without any doubt, Kashim Ibrahim deserves that honour of being celebrated just like Ooni Adesoji Aderemi, first Ceremonial governor of Western Region of Nigeria was remember today on the occasion of the fortieth anniversary of his transition.

 

THE KASHIM IBRAHIM FOUNDATION:  The Kashim Ibrahim Fellowship (KIF) is a one-year non-partisan leadership training programme for young Nigerians between the age of 25-35 years. The one-year Fellowship aims to create a network of high potential young Nigerians who are expected to rise to top leadership positions in the public sector and other spheres of activity over the next decade. Established in 2018, KIF is an initiative of the Kaduna State Government (KDSG).  The Fellowship’s objective is to develop and nurture leadership ability across Nigeria, with specific focus on the promising leaders of the future. It is our belief that this one-year programme would help establish a strong understanding of good governance in Fellows in addition to providing a structure that would help steer them towards active participation in and a commitment to public service and informed leadership in Nigeria.

 

MISSION: As indicated in Wikipedia and on the Foundation’s website,  ‘’The overall mission of this non-partisan programme, as envisioned by Governor Nasir el-Rufai, is in his words, “to raise the next generation of leaders who will most likely be absorbed into the Nigerian public sector having had a first-hand experience of its workings and challenges”. This Fellowship aims to change the perception of young Nigerians Sir Shettima Kashim Ibrahim, KCMGCBE (10 June 1910 – 25 July 1990)  was a Kanuri politician who was head of the Native Administration in Borno and was a minister for Social Services in the 1950s. He held the traditional title of Waziri of the Emirate of Borno after two previous Waziris had been forced to resign as a result of scandals in the Borno local administration. He was a close associate of Sir Ahmadu Bello.

 

WHY THE FOUNDATION: Inaugurating the Third Cohort of the Foundation a few days ago, Mallam Nasir el Rufai explained that ‘’the Kaduna State Government values young people. We have appointed many youths and vested them with responsibility to help deliver progressive outcomes for our people. We are persuaded that sustained mentorship is an effective path to raising effective leaders and public servants. In 2017, we decided to institutionalise a programme to contribute to building youth capacity through intellectual stimulation and practical exposure to the workings and challenges of public service.We established the Kashim Ibrahim Fellowship Programme as a deliberate investment in building leadership capacity among our youths.  The first set of fellows resumed in August 2018,  after a selection process that was rigorous and based on merit.’’

 

He continued: ‘’By the time of their graduation in July 2019, these 16 fellows, from all over Nigeria, had impressed us with their energy, zeal, talent and ability.  The best graduating fellow in the pioneer set, Jemimah Jatau, has already been admitted as a Mason Fellow, and to study for an MPA at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government.  The second set of fellows resumed in August 2019. They have lived up to the hopes that inspired the fellowship. A significant chunk of their programme time has fallen within the uncertainties created by the Covid-19 pandemic, but they have adapted magnificently.  The 16 fellows selected by the Governing Board for the third cohort have been selected based on the high standards set by the first two sets of fellows. ‘’Contrary to our plans, we are unable to expand the annual intake of fellows to 24 this year due to the disruptions unleashed by Covid-19.’’

 

The board, which comprises 16 members, will be chaired by Dele Olojede, a multiple award-winning journalist with First Bank Plc chairperson, Ibukun Awosika as member. Members of the board include Clara Ejembi, a professor at Ahmadu Bello University who was named the vice-chairperson; Ibukun Awosika, an indegene of Ibadan and the chairperson of First Bank of Nigeria; Hadiza Bala Usman, managing director, Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA); Segun Adeniyi, chairman of THISDAY editorial board; Maryam Uwais, special adviser to the president on social investments, and Ndidi Nwuneli, managing partner of Sahel Consulting. Other members are Muhammad Sani Abdullahi, chief of staff to the governor; Kadaria Ahmed, a journalist; Lola Shoneyin, an author; Asue Ighodalo, a lawyer; Jimi Lawal, an aide of the governor; Japheth Omojuwa, an activist; Bilya Bala and a representative of the Kashim Ibrahim family. The pioneer set of 16 young persons, selected from all over Nigeria, resumed in August 2018 and completed the 12-month fellowship in July 2019.

THE LESSONS:  We perceive two important lessons in this development/gesture. First are the gains from Nigeria’s diversity and dispassionate conduct by the ruling class.  A former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Nigeria, Hon. Justice Modibbo Alfa Belgore, CJN rtd once pointed out that the nation’s problems since independence have been caused by the elite and not the various constitutions that have been operated, noting that the country has the potential to be great: “Nigeria is a beautiful country, the pride of the black race. The present problems are the results of instability; had democratic governance not been terminated in 1966, we would have crossed the rubicon into developed nation, not underdeveloped nation”. As submitted in my book: ‘Nigeria; An Insider’s Reflections on the Nigerian Polity’,  ‘’it is abundantly clear that the groundwork for the failure of the first democratic experiment was laid even before independence, with political party leaders fanning embers of ethnicity and other issues which divided, rather than unite the country. It is appropriate, therefore, for the nation to review the blueprint of the constitution that would guide relationships and conducts. One highly contentious development that has to be accorded particular attention is indigeneship. The unrests and widespread disturbances in many parts of the country are attributable to this issue ethno-religious matters, citizenship, indigeneship and related issues that must be thoroughly and critically examined within the context of federalism.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Undying Legacy Of ODUA

By Eric Teniola

The South West governors have reconstituted the board of directors of Odua Company Limited. The new board is headed by Dr, Lawrence Olusegun Aina (65), past President of West Africa Bankers Association and former President of Otan-Ayegbaju Development Association in Osun state. Other members of the new board are Chief Segun Ojo, a former Commissioner for Finance, Budget and Economic Planning in Ondo State, Dr. Tola Kasali who served as Commissioner for Rural Development in Lagos State between 2003 and 2007, Barrister Seni Adio, SAN, the Managing Partner of Copley Partners (Solicitors & Barristers, Mr. Olusegun Olujobi who is ex-Accenture and Energy Industry player and Otunba Bimbo Ashiru, a renowned banker and immediate past Commissioner for Commerce and Industry in Ogun state. The Group Managing Director of the Company is Mr. Adewale Abiodun Raji, a former Managing Director of PZ Cussons Nigeria Plc., who was recently reappointed for another term. The inauguration of the new board is a welcome development, for Odua Investment Company is one of the three regional groupings in the country. The other two bodies are the Interim Common Services Agency for Northern Region and Eastern States Interim Assets and Liabilities Agency (ESIALA), which we don’t hear of, these days. Profitability was achieved by Odua Company between 2014 and 2018, an unprecedented dividend of N1.2billion was paid. The fulcrum of credible strategic partnership is gradually taking shape with the recent strides in the Imeko Tomato to Paste Project and the Westlink Iconic Estate JV at Alakia, Ibadan. These and many more like the Power Generation Project at Ikeja, The Farming Company Limited JV at Oke-Ako Ekiti, the Vitalo Brand Project are initiatives that are unfolding to grow the revenue base of the Company.

ANTECEDENTS: The Odua Investment Company is an offshoot of an Economic body of the Action Group, which came to power in 1952 in Western Region. The Action group (Egbe Afenifere) led by Chief Obafemi Awolowo was formed on March 21, 1951 at the Oke-Bola residence of Chief Awolowo in Ibadan. The house still stands today. I remember with nostalgia when I was a reporter in the Nigerian Tribune in 1972, I used to collect stories on phone in that house on the Oniru land case dispatched by the Nigerian Tribune correspondent in Lagos, Mr Bayo Osiyemi. It was that time I met Chief Awolowo for the first time in my life. I almost fainted seeing the man bearing in mind the myth I grew up with about Chief Awolowo in my home town in Idanre in Ondo state. Chief Obafemi Awolowo, its leader later stated that the party had been formed by himself and seven others at a meeting in his house in Ibadan on March 26, 1950. The seven others who formed Action Group with Chief Awolowo were Chief Samuel Olatunbosun Shonibare (1920-1964), then manager, UAC (Technical) Ltd, Lagos, later Managing Director of the Amalgamated Press of Nigeria Limited and Federal Publicity Secretary of the Action Group;

Chief Abiodun Akerele, a lawyer; S.T. Oredein, Secretary of the British-American Tobacco Company (BATC) Workers’ Union, later Principal organizing Secretary of the Action Group in the Western Region; Olatunji Dosunmu, a journalist, later Administrative Secretary of the Action Group in the Western Region; J. Ola Adigun, a journalist; Adeniga Akinsanya, Manager of the African Press Ltd, Ibadan and Ayo Akinsanya, a chemist and a druggist. At the convention of the party later, the following were elected—Chief Obafemi Awolowo (President), Dr. J.A. Doherty (Vice-President, West), Dr. E.O. Awduche (Vice-President, East), Alhaji Sule Maito (Vice-President, North), Mr. Ayotunde Rosiji (Federal Secretary), Alhaji S. O. Gbadamosi (Federal Treasurer), Mr. S.O. Shonibare (Federal Publicity Secretary), Mr. A.M.O. Akinloye (Legal Adviser, West), Mr. A. Adeoba (Legal Adviser, East), Rev. E.O. Alayande (Party Chaplain), Malam M.S. Yabagi (Party Imam), Dr. Akinola Maja (Father of the Party), Chief S.L. Akintola (Deputy Leader), Mr. S.T. Oredein (Principal Organising Secretary), Mr. O. Agunbiade- Bamishe (Party Manager) and Mr. Olatunji Dosunmu (Administrative Secretary). The other members of the party at the convention were Chief F.R.A. Williams, Chief Anthony Enahoro, Chief T. A. Odutola, Chief G. Akin Deko, Mr. M.A. Ajasin, Prince Adeleke Adedoyin, Chief S.A. Tinubu, Mr. S.O. Ighodaro, Mr. Nduka Eze, Mr.O.N. Rewane, Mr. E.O. Eyo, Mr. S.G. Ikoku, Prince R.N. Takon, Mr. A.J.U. Ekong, Mr. S.J. Una, Mr. Okoi Arikpo, Mr. J.A. Agba, Chief Okim Okwa Ahang, Mr. George Lawson, Miss R.T. Brown, Mr. B.E. Mbalu, Mr. J.S. Olawoyin, Chief D.O. Sanyaolu, Mr. D. Adesina, Mr. M.O. Ikongbe, Mr. O.Olu Pinnock, Mr.J.S. Tejuoso, Mr. G.B. Olowu, Alfa K.S. Oba, Mr. D.O. Ogunmade, Mr. Omoniyi Olanipekun, Mr. Peter Onu and Mr. Alex Peters.

FORMATION OF THE ACTION GROUP PARTY: The party held its first inauguration in Owo in the present Ondo state on 28 April, 1952 and they were hosted by the legendary Olowo of Owo, Sir James Titus Olateru Olagbegi II (1910-1998). The motto of the party was “freedom for all, life more abundant”. It was the party’s belief that “the people of Western Nigeria in particular, and of Nigeria in general, would have life more abundant when they enjoy freedom from British rule, freedom from ignorance, freedom disease and freedom from want”.
In setting up the Action Group, Chief Obafemi Awolowo, GCFR, had two broad objectives in mind, one was political, and the other was economical. Chief Awolowo believed at that time that political party funding are the methods that a political party uses to raise money for campaign and routine activities. As for the political, he enlisted Chief Akintola, Chief Enahoro and others. That political arrangement broke down later. As for the economic, he enlisted Chief Samuel Olatunbosun Shonibare (19201-1964), Chief Sule Oyesola Gbadamosi from Ikorodu and Chief Alfred Ogbeyiwa Erewarone Rewane (1916-1995) alias Osabokolo from Warri, who later became Chairman Western Nigeria Development Company. In terms of managing business, Chief Shonibare, Chief Rewane and Chief Gbadamosi were gifted. They were capable of turning anything to an asset.

It was the same scenario that played out in South Africa in 1994 when President Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (1918-2013) encouraged the then Vice President Thambo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (77) to be in charge of government while the present President of South Africa, Mr. Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa (67), then secretary of the National Union of Mine Workers to be in charge of the businesses for the African National Congress. The arrangement worked then in that it reduced rivalry. It paid off for Mr Ramaphosa who has an estimated net worth of $450million as of 2018, with 31poperties and previously-held notable ownership in companies such as McDonald’s South Africa, chair of the board for MTN and member of the board for Lomnin Chief Shonibare and his group established the National Investment Company along with Chief Rewane and Chief Gbadamosi. It was this company that built the Western House in Lagos, Cocoa house in Ibadan and Bristol hotel in Lagos. It was the same company that built most of the companies that are under Odua Investment Company today. It was this group that was behind the Western Region partnership in the establishment of worldwide redifusion in Ibadan, Nigerian Plastic Company (1954), Ibadan, Nidogas, Lagos, Nigersol Construction Company (1959), Nigerian Water Resources Development Company (1959), Ibadan, Nigerian Pre-Pressed and Concrete Company, Abeokuta, Crittal Hope Nigerian Ltd., Mushin, Vono (West Africa) Mushin, Tower Aluminium Ltd Ikeja, Asbestos Cement, Ikeja, Nigerian Sugar Company, Apapa, Nigerian Mosaic and Glass Manufacturing Company, Ikeja, Pioneer Biscuit Company, Apapa, West African Portland Company, Ewekoro, Nigerian Textile Mills Ltd., Ikeja

Let’s take Chief Shonibare for example. His career began in 1936 as a clerk for U.A.C in Ibadan where he worked from 1936 to 1942, he was then promoted Chief Clerk and book-keeper at Ijebu-Ode in 1942. He rose to become office manager, technical department before leaving the firm in 1952. Upon leaving UAC, he joined Amalgamated Press, publishers of the Daily Service which was then a political mouth-piece of the Action Group. During his tenure, the company launched the Sunday Express an apolitical weekly magazine and also the launched Daily Express in partnership with the Thomson Group. Under his leadership, Amalgamated Press had editors like Chief Victor Olabisi Onabanjo (1927-1990) and Alhaji Lateef Jakande(90), who later became governors. In 1958, Shonibare became managing director of the National Investment Property Company, he was invited to be the MD by S.O. Gbadamosi, a board member. While working for U.A.C. in Ijebu Ode, his supervisor was Mr Samuel Olukoya. At party in 1942, he was introduced to his daughter Ms Alice Olukoya, they got married in 1946.
He was managing director of National Investment and Properties Corporation, a private company that was linked with AG and the regional government and whose directors were party members. The company was formed in 1958. When a state of emergency became effective in the Western Region, Chief Shonibare was limited to Ondo town. He died in January 1964. Prior to his death, he founded Shonny Investments which was in the process of developing Maryland Estate in Lagos. He was also involved in a mobile film unit and a printing business.

FORESIGHT: As for Chief Rewane, he started his career as a manager trainee with UAC and became the beach master, Lagos Customs Wharf for the firm. In the 1940s he left UAC and focused on importing goods, especially cow bones and black pepper and then in the 1950s, he was also into the timber trade and he owned the Rex club in Yaba, Lagos where Chief Olabinjo Bobby Benson (1922-1983) was a regular musician. During the pre-independence era in Nigeria, Rewane was affiliated with the Action Group, he became the chairman of the Western Nigeria Development Company. Chief Gbadamosi was a household name in Ikorodu, especially in terms of business which is still the centre of commerce in the present Lagos state. The rate at which Chief Obafemi Awolowo was developing the Western Region at that time was unbelievable and at a very short period. His achievements were laudable. Hence the envy. 1962 was the worst year for the Action Group with political landmines planted by the party’s adversaries. In February 1962, the party was engulfed in a serious crises in Jos during its annual congress.

On May 29, 1962, a state of emergency was declared by the Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. The motion was approved by 209 votes to 36 in the House of Representatives and in the Senate by 32 votes to 7 with two abstentions. He then appointed Senator Adekoyejo Moses Majekodunmi (1916-2012), CFR, the Mayegun of Lagos and Otun balogun of Egba Christians, as the administrator of Western Region. The following day he arrived in Ibadan with his ADC, Captain Murtala Mohammed (1938-1976). The first act of Dr. Majekodunmi on arrival was to order the restrictions of the leading political personalities in the Western Region including Chief Obafemi Awolowo, GCFR, (1909-1987), Chief Samuel Ladoke Akintola (1910-1966), Chief Ayotunde Rosiji (1917-2000), Chief Dauda Soroye Adegbenro (1909-1975), Chief Frederick Rotimi Alade Williams (1920-2005) and the leader of opposition at that time, Chief Victor Babaremilekun Adetokunbo Fanikayode (1921-1995).
On June 20, 1962, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, the Prime Minister of the Federation, appointed a commission headed by Justice George Baptist Ayodola Coker, to inquire into the financial and investment policies and practices, the management and the business operations of six statutory corporations in Western Nigeria since October 1, 1954.

FORESIGHT OF THE FOUNDING FATHERS: The affected companies are Western Region Marketing Board, the Western Nigeria Development Corporation, the Western Region Finance Corporation and the Western Region Housing Corporation. Other members of the panel were Mr Oladiran Booyamin Kassim, Acting Judge of the High Court of Eastern Nigeria, and Mr. Akintola Williams (100), a Lagos Chartered Accountant. The Commission sat for 92days and had 50witnesses. Chief Awolowo who on November 2, 1962, had been charged again with conspiring to overthrow the Federal Government by force had refused to give evidence before the Coker Commission of Inquiry. From Lagos Prison, when waiting trial, he sent a letter to the Chairman of the inquiry, Dr. Coker saying that he had come to conclusion that no useful purpose would be served by his further participation in the inquiry. The enquiry did not find Chief Awolowo guilty. They made only two recommendations that the Western Nigeria Marketing Board should take over immediately all properties of the National Investment and Properties Company Ltd, that the Board should take steps to recover from the Action Group a sum of N8, 000,000 which Action Group had received from the National Investment and Properties Company between April 18, 1958 and May 31, 1962. In a White Paper issued with the report, the Federal Government endorsed it. In a statement signed by Chief Awolowo, the Action Group rejected the report. The party alleged that it was “produced with unprecedented ruthless speed and waton disregard for facts.”

Incidentally, the affected companies mentioned at the Coker Commission of enquiry are today the foundation upon which Odua Investment Company was built. They are today the goldmines. The stone that the builders rejected has now become the corner stone.
Odua Investment Company was formally established in 1976 when Ondo and Ogun states were created out of Western state. The company was to take charge of the assets and liabilities of the whole Western Region. As a reporter with THE NIGERIAN HERALD at that time, I covered the inauguration of the new company at Cocoa house in Ibadan with the governor of Oyo state, Colonel David Medayese Jemibewon (79) from Aiyetoro Gbede in Kogi state presiding with two other governors present namely, Colonel Seidu Ayodele Balogun (Ogun) from Ido Ani in Ondo state and Wing Commader David Ita Ikpeme (Ondo). The pioneer Group Managing Director of the Company then was Mr. Christopher Sunday Olatunji Akande. Mr. Akande (1927-2005) from Arigidi, Akoko in Ondo state. The same town that produced Justice Olakunle Joseph Orojo (1923-2009), the first indigenous Director of Law School, Chief Felix Idowu Ayegbusi (1935-2019), former National Chairman, Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, Pastor T.B. Joshua and Aare Ona Kakanfo, Gani Adams. After Chief Akande was Chief Francis Mogaji from Efon-Alaye in Ekiti state, 1979 to 1983, an Accountant from Ekiti State who previously worked with UAC & Food Specialties now Nestle Nigeria Plc,.Chief Iyowu from Ogun State took over from Chief Mogaji and served from 1984 to 1989. He was previously Managing Director of Cocoa Industries Ltd Ikeja, who processed Cocoa beans to Cocoa Butter and Cake and manufactured d VITALO Cocoa beverage that ranked 3rd to Bournvita and Milo in this Category. Chief Olufemi Adewumi also from Ekiti State who served as MD of Wemabod Estates Ltd before becoming Group Managing Director from 1989 to 1993, Alhaji Aruna, a Lawyer from Oyo State was Group Managing Director from 1994 to 1997 while Sir Remi Omotoso, from Ekiti state, ex-Unilever served from 1998 to 2004, Dr Adebayo Jimoh Ex John Holt was Group Managing Director from 2005 to 2014.

The functioning Companies of Odua Group are Wemabod Estates Ltd (Real Estate), Glanvill Enthoven (Insurance Brokers), Lagos Airport Hotel, Ikeja, Premier Hotel and Lafia Hotel at Ibadan (Hospitality), E & O Power & Equipment Leasing and Odua Printing & Publishing Co Ltd. Prominent Companies where Odua Group have Minority interests courtesy of being seed investor are Nigerite Ltd, Lafarge Wapco, Wema Bank Plc, Tower Aluminum Plc, Great Nigeria Insurance Plc, Crittall Hope, Ire Clay Products Ltd, SKG-Pharma etc The people who flew the flag of Odua Investment Company especially the past and present governors who served in the south west, are appreciated. The flag must not fly half-mast during the era of Arakunrin Oluwarotimi Akeredolu, SAN,(Ondo), Mr. Babajide Sanwo-Olu(Lagos), Mr. Gboyega Oyetola (Osun), Mr. Seyi Makinde (Oyo), Dr. Kayode Fayemi (Ekiti) and Prince Dapo Abiodun(Ogun). I also appreciate Otunba Mohammed Jobi-Fele (1940-2011), a cocoa merchant from Ikare in Ondo state, who had earlier served as Chairman of Odua and who stood his ground during his tenure and ensured that the company must survive and be sustained.

I understand that the Odua Investment Company wants to diversify into agriculture which was the main goal of Chief Obafemi Awolowo when he established the farm settlements in the old Western Region. Efforts must be made to save Odua Investment Company and the South West governors must ensure that this regional legacy must not only be sustained but improved upon. As long as Odua Investment Company exists those clamouring for restructuring and regionalism are on solid ground. If other zones of this country are encouraged to develop on their own, there will be less dependence on the centre. And the way we are going now, there may be nothing left to share again in the centre. In short we are heading towards a situation where YOU ARE ON YOUR OWN.

The Author Dr. Bahira Trask is Professor and Chair of the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences at the University of Delaware. She holds a B.A. in Political Science with a concentration in International Relations from Yale University and a Ph.D. in Cultural Anthropology from the University of Pennsylvania. Her research focuses on globalization, social policies, gender and family change in Western and non-Western countries, and she presents regularly on these topics at international, national, and local forums. D

Executive Summary The implementation, success, and sustainability of SDGs 16 and 11 are greatly dependent on a family focused approach that takes into consideration the contexts within which decisions about laws, policies, and programmes are made. Isolated approaches that target individuals without consideration of the larger family environments in which they are embedded are destined to fail. It is thus, imperative that families in all their various forms, need to be recognized, targeted, strengthened, and supported. SDG16 promoting peaceful and inclusive societies relies on families to create and raise the next generation of peaceful, stable citizens and productive workers. Encouraging positive child and youth development is a key component of this goal, as well as stabilizing family environments through strengthening family relationships and providing basic financial stability. The eradication of poverty is key to decreasing stressors on families. SDG16.3 promoting the rule of law lays the foundation for peace. Regulatory frameworks that are based on a human rights approach, promote participation, take into account gender equality and protect marginalized groups. States have an obligation under the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights that was adapted in 1966 to care for the social and economic welfare of their citizens. Children specifically have a legal right to family life. SDG16.9 providing legal identity for all is a fundamental aspect of human rights. Proportionally, women and marginalized groups are less likely to have a legal identity and face more and higher barriers. Lack of legal identity hinders the ability to exercise civil and political rights and secure socio-economic benefits from the state. The displacement of over 65 million people as of the end of 2016 also creates serious challenges with respect to access to legal identities. SDG 11.1 ensuring access for all to adequate safe and adequate housing and services is foundational for family life: having a decent home allows members to access education, health, and employment opportunities. Specifically, low-income families are affected by sub-standard housing. States need to regulate the runaway housing markets that are dominating the global rental and homeownership scene. Moreover, contemporary experiments in multigenerational living promise to re-center family life and are leading to successful outcomes for youth and the elderly. SDG 11.3 enhancing participatory urbanization can only occur if representation from multiple constituencies throughout society work together. Inclusive societies take into account the special needs of women, and vulnerable and disadvantaged groups. Inclusion leads to the design of more functional urban spaces. SDG11.7 providing access to safe and inclusive green spaces is key for encouraging well-being. Recent research indicates that being able to access nature facilitates physical and mental health and connectedness to family, friends and home. The 2030 Agenda is based on integration and an emphasis on a global compact focusing on universal participation, shared responsibility, and improved accountability. Sustainable development can only be carried out through a focus on families combined with participatory leadership, adherence to the rule of law, and a stronger role advocating for their citizens by states. Joint efforts by transnational, national, and local stakeholders will be the key to success. 5 The Role of Families and Family Policies in Achieving

The Importance of a Family Focus to the Success of the SDGs A fundamental challenge to implementing Agenda 2030 and the SDGs is that an intensive, specifically Western focus and debate in recent years on the diverse and changing forms of families, has led to a programmatic and academic lack of focus on the critical role that families play in the lives of individuals, and thus, in the implementation of policies and programmes in Western and non-Western contexts (Trask, 2010; Trask, 2015). Different social, cultural, and economic contexts will give rise to varied family forms. Despite this variation, the fundamental obligations, rights and duties of how closely related individuals are bound to one another, remain, and must be adequately supported in order to contribute to the development of children and the stabilization of adult personalities (Baumrind, 2005; Bogenschneider, 2014). Furthermore, shrinking state support for social services around the world is creating an environment in which families are more, not less important to the health and well-being of individuals, especially children, those who are ill, have disabilities as well as older persons. Family Functions. In a classic report on family support, Ooms (1996) highlighted the fact that it is impossible to create social change without a clear-cut family focus. She identified four functions of families that are relevant to the successful implementation of social agendas, policies, and programmes: 1. Families provide individuals through membership, a sense of personal and social identity. Families give a form of meaning to most people’s lives and a sense of belonging that often extends to their communities as well. 2. Families are the unit of basic

economic support for their members and for society. They provide shelter, food and clothing for their dependents. 3. Families around the world continue to be the most efficient unit for rearing and nurturing children (despite some failed experiments to the contrary historically). They promote the well-being, health, education and safety for children and are the primary resource in early life for social status and morals and values. 4. Families provide care for those vulnerable individuals that cannot live on their own such as the disabled, the terminally ill, and the frail elderly (Ooms, 1996, p. 6). These foundational aspects of families are the underpinning of all societies and provide the starting point on which all other policies and programmes need to be built.

Implementing the SDGs Through Family Focused Approaches. Poverty and inequality lie at the heart of implementing the SDGs for families across the globe. Growing economic disparities have widened the gap between families within and between societies. Development efforts can only succeed if they take into account the protection and promotion of the rights of vulnerable populations such as the extremely poor, children, persons with disabilities, and older persons, as well as the promotion of equality between women and men in families and communities. These populations cannot and should not be addressed in isolation. It is their membership as part of family groups that defines critical aspects of their experiences. Historically, families have always been the primary group to socialize children and to teach and transmit values. However, the changes brought on through globalization have impacted families world-wide. Particularly in Western societies, the “traditional” family composed of a married couple with children where the woman’s primary role is as caregiver and homemaker and the man as provider and father, has weakened as an institution and has been replaced by “families of choice.” These families of choice include cohabiting partners, voluntarily childless families single parent households, and step-families among others. These transformations are often attributed to increased secularization, the growth of individualism with an emphasis on selffulfillment, new forms of reproductive technologies, and innovations in contraception. However, one serious consequence of these changes has been a politicized discourse about the role of family in society and specifically which norms now constitute the “right” or “acceptable” norms (Bogenschneider et al. 2012; Trask, 2010). The politicization of family has led to a fragmentation of scholarship on the various aspects of family life, as well as a decreased policy emphasis on the needs and supports for families. We cannot speak of providing access to rights frameworks, a legal identity or housing, just Part 1: SDG16 Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels Families create and raise the next generation of citizens and productive workers, raise caring and committed citizens, make efficient investments to reach societal goals and provide an effective way of promoting positive child and youth development (Bogenschneider & Corbett, 2010). Empirical, longitudinal studies illustrate that when families are supported through appropriate policies, societies benefit through having a caring, committed group of citizens. Families are also the primary unit that promotes peace in society. For instance, Cole and Rutter (1993) suggested that when families create a “sociology of peace” in their family systems, these models are 10 transformative in national and international contexts of inequality and political violence. They highlight the notion that families can be helped in developing “the skills necessary to bring about a peaceful balance between the demands of the social, ecological, economic, and emotional/spiritual aspects of their existence” (p. 269). From this perspective, the interrelationship and interdependence of members of families are a micro-level reflection of the interdependence of people, states, and the global environment. Empirical evidence suggests that when individuals are at peace with themselves, they are more likely to lead peaceful family lives. In other words, generally speaking, peaceful families are likely to have peaceful internal members (Cole & Rutter, 1993). As members of a family interact in a peaceful manner, this synergy is reflected to the outer world. Thus, a setting with peaceful families will likely be a peaceful environment. Building on this notion, peaceful communities with peaceful members leads to nonviolent nations who in turn pursue less conflictual relations, leading to a more peaceful world. These interconnected relationships amongst individuals, families, and larger social structures are key: families are the link between creating peace in individuals, peace in society, and peace between nations. When viewed from this perspective, families become the crucial mechanism and active agent in promoting and disseminating global peace (Cole & Rutter, 1993). Families, Children and Political Violence War, terrorism and violence have deleterious effects on families and children. UNICEF estimates that currently worldwide, nearly 28 million children have been displaced through force. This includes about 10 million child refugees, 1 million asylum-seeking children, and 17 million children who have been displaced within their own countries through violence and conflict (UNICEF, 2018). In fact, in the period between 2005 and 2015, the number of child refugees doubled from 4 million to 8 million. In 2015, children made up 51 per cent of the world’s refugees despite being less than one third of the global population.

It is normal for parents to argue, but the way these disagreements affect children varies greatly. What can parents and carers do to limit the harm caused by their rows? How parents’ arguments really affect their children

What happens at home really does affect children’s long-term mental health and development.

But it is not only the relationship between the parent and child that is important.

How parents get on with each other also plays a big role in a child’s wellbeing, with the potential to affect everything from mental health to academic success and future relationships.

But there is the chance for some good to come out of a “positive” row.

In most cases, arguments will have little or no negative effects for children.

But when parents shout and are angry with each other, when they consistently withdraw or give each other the “silent treatment”, problems can sometimes arise.

UK and international research conducted over several decades through observations in the home, long-term follow up work and experimental studies, suggests that from as young as six months, children exposed to conflict may have increased heart rates and stress hormone responses.

Infants, children and adolescents can show signs of disrupted early brain development, sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and other serious problems as a result of living with severe or chronic inter-parental conflict.

Similar effects are also seen in children who are exposed to ongoing but less intense conflict, compared with children whose parents constructively negotiate or resolve conflicts.

Nature or nurture?

The impact on children is not always as might be expected.

For example, divorce – and parents deciding to live apart – has often been seen as having a particularly damaging and lasting effect on many children.

But in some cases, it is now thought that it could be the arguments that take place between parents before, during and after a separation that do the damage, rather than the break-up itself.

Similarly, it has often been assumed that genetics play a defining role in how children respond to conflict.

And it is true that “nature” is central to a child’s mental health – playing a part in problems from anxiety, to depression and psychosis.

Confucianism uses the family as the basis of society, and the relationships of the family members define proper social and political behavior. In a family, children respect the elders, ancestors are venerated and adults protect the children. … Everyone has a duty to each other member of society.Feb 14, 201Confucianism uses the family as the basis

of society, and the relationships of the family members define proper social and political behavior. … The reciprocal duties found within the family and the base virtue of respect are called filial piety.Feb 14, 2015

Government and society in China were grounded in the Confucian philosophy, which held that there was a basic order in the universe and a natural harmony linking man, nature, and the cosmos (heaven); it also held that man was by nature a social being, and that the natural order of the universe should be reflected in …

The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice, kindness, and sincerity.

The worldly concern of Confucianism rests upon the belief that human beings are fundamentally good, and teachable, improvable, and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor, especially self-cultivation and self-creation. Confucian thought focuses on the cultivation of virtue in a morally organised world.

Some of the basic Confucian ethical concepts and practices include rén, yì, and lǐ, and zhì. Rén (仁, ‘benevolence’ or ‘humaneness’) is the essence of the human being which manifests as compassion. It is the virtue-form of Heaven. Yì (义; 義) is the upholding of righteousness and the moral disposition to do good.

Families are essential for social cohesion, the socialisation of children and individual well-being; they are the base from which children and adults can learn, work, and contribute to society. They play an indispensable role in care, particularly for vulnerable members of society, such as the disabled and elderly.

Having a close-knit and supportive family provides emotional support, economic well-being, and increases overall health. However, the opposite is also true. When family life is characterized by stress and conflict, the health of family members tends to be negatively affected.

How do the family problems of early life affect a child’s personality?

Children who experience family disruptions between birth and age 16 score significantly lower in terms of self-esteem and internal locus of control. This is both observed when measured at age 10 or at age 16. They also score significantly higher on the Rutter index for behavioural problems at ages 5, 10, and 16.

How can a family break up affect a child’s development?

A child may feel: a sense of loss – separation from a parent can mean you lose not only your home, but your whole way of life. … fearful about being left alone – if one parent can go, perhaps the other will do the same. angry at one or both parents for the relationship breakdown.

Confucius

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Confucius (Chinese: 孔子); born Kǒng Qiū (Chinese: 孔丘); (/kənˈfjuːʃəs/ kən-FEW-shəs;[1] 551 BC–479 BC)[2][3] was a Chinese philosopher and politician of the Spring and Autumn period.

The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice, kindness, and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin dynasty. Following the victory of Han over Chu after the collapse of Qin, Confucius’s thoughts received official sanction in the new government and were further developed into a system known in the West as Neo-Confucianism, and later New Confucianism (Modern Neo-Confucianism).

Confucius is traditionally credited with having authored or edited many of the Chinese classic texts including all of the Five Classics, but modern scholars are cautious of attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself. Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled in the Analects, but only many years after his death.

Confucius’s principles have commonality with Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong family loyalty, ancestor veneration, and respect of elders by their children and of husbands by their wives, recommending family as a basis for ideal government. He espoused the well-known principle “Do not do unto others what you do not want done to yourself”, the Golden Rule. He is also a traditional deity in Daoism.

Confucius is widely considered as one of the most important and influential individuals in human history. His teaching and philosophy greatly impacted people around the world and remain influential today.[4][5]

Name

The name “Confucius” is a Latinized form of the Mandarin Chinese “Kǒng Fūzǐ” (孔夫子, meaning “Master Kǒng”), and was coined in the late 16th century by the early Jesuit missionaries to China.[6] Confucius’s clan name was “Kǒng” (孔; Old Chinese*‍[k]ʰˤoŋʔ), and his given name was “Qiū” (丘; OC: *‍[k]ʷʰə). His “capping name”, given upon reaching adulthood and by which he would have been known to all but his older family members, was “Zhòngní” (仲尼, OC:*‍N-‍truŋ-‍s nr[əj]), the “Zhòng” indicating that he was the second son in his family.[6][7]

Life

Early life

.

Further information: Family tree of Confucius in the main line of descent

It is thought that Confucius was born on September 28, 551 BC,[2][8] in Zou (, in modern Shandong province).[8][9] The area was notionally controlled by the kings of Zhou but effectively independent under the local lords of Lu, who ruled from the nearby city of Qufu. His father Kong He (or Shuliang He) was an elderly commandant of the local Lu garrison.[10] His ancestry traced back through the dukes of Song to the Shang dynasty which had preceded the Zhou.[11][12][13][14] Traditional accounts of Confucius’s life relate that Kong He’s grandfather had migrated the family from Song to Lu.[15]

Kong He died when Confucius was three years old, and Confucius was raised by his mother Yan Zhengzai () in poverty.[16] His mother would later die at less than 40 years of age.[16] At age 19 he married Qiguan (亓官), and a year later the couple had their first child, Kong Li (孔鯉).[16] Qiguan and Confucius would later have two daughters together, one of whom is thought to have died as a child.[17]

Confucius was educated at schools for commoners, where he studied and learned the Six Arts.[18]

Confucius was born into the class of shi (士), between the aristocracy and the common people. He is said to have worked in various government jobs during his early 20s, and as a bookkeeper and a caretaker of sheep and horses, using the proceeds to give his mother a proper burial.[16][19] When his mother died, Confucius (aged 23) is said to have mourned for three years, as was the tradition.[19]

Political career

Western Han (202 BC – 9 AD) fresco depicting Confucius (and Laozi), from a tomb of Dongping CountyShandong province, China

In Confucius’s time, the state of Lu was headed by a ruling ducal house.[20] Under the duke were three aristocratic families, whose heads bore the title of viscount and held hereditary positions in the Lu bureaucracy.[21] The Ji family held the position “Minister over the Masses”, who was also the “Prime Minister”; the Meng family held the position “Minister of Works”; and the Shu family held the position “Minister of War”.[21] In the winter of 505 BC, Yang Hu—a retainer of the Ji family—rose up in rebellion and seized power from the Ji family.[21] However, by the summer of 501 BC, the three hereditary families had succeeded in expelling Yang Hu from Lu.[21] By then, Confucius had built up a considerable reputation through his teachings, while the families came to see the value of proper conduct and righteousness, so they could achieve loyalty to a legitimate government.[22] Thus, that year (501 BC), Confucius came to be appointed to the minor position of governor of a town.[22] Eventually, he rose to the position of Minister of Crime.[22]

Confucius desired to return the authority of the state to the duke by dismantling the fortifications of the city—strongholds belonging to the three families.[23] This way, he could establish a centralized government.[23] However, Confucius relied solely on diplomacy as he had no military authority himself.[23] In 500 BC, Hou Fan—the governor of Hou—revolted against his lord of the Shu family.[23] Although the Meng and Shu families unsuccessfully besieged Hou, a loyalist official rose up with the people of Hou and forced Hou Fan to flee to the Qi state.[23] The situation may have been in favor for Confucius as this likely made it possible for Confucius and his disciples to convince the aristocratic families to dismantle the fortifications of their cities.[23] Eventually, after a year and a half, Confucius and his disciples succeeded in convincing the Shu family to raze the walls of Hou, the Ji family in razing the walls of Bi, and the Meng family in razing the walls of Cheng.[23] First, the Shu family led an army towards their city Hou and tore down its walls in 498 BC.[23]

Soon thereafter, Gongshan Furao (also known as Gongshan Buniu), a retainer of the Ji family, revolted and took control of the forces at Bi.[24][25] He immediately launched an attack and entered the capital Lu.[23] Earlier, Gongshan had approached Confucius to join him, which Confucius considered as he wanted the opportunity to put his principles into practice but he gave up on the idea in the end.[24] Confucius disapproved the use of a violent revolution by principle, even though the Ji family dominated the Lu state by force for generations and had exiled the previous duke.[24] Creel (1949) states that, unlike the rebel Yang Hu before him, Gongshan may have sought to destroy the three hereditary families and restore the power of the duke.[26] However, Dubs (1946) is of the view that Gongshan was encouraged by Viscount Ji Huan to invade the Lu capital in an attempt to avoid dismantling the Bi fortified walls.[25] Whatever the situation may have been, Gongshan was considered an upright man who continued to defend the state of Lu, even after he was forced to flee.[26][27]

During the revolt by Gongshan, Zhong You had managed to keep the duke and the three viscounts together at the court.[27] Zhong You was one of the disciples of Confucius and Confucius had arranged for him to be given the position of governor by the Ji family.[28] When Confucius heard of the raid, he requested that Viscount Ji Huan allow the duke and his court to retreat to a stronghold on his palace grounds.[29] Thereafter, the heads of the three families and the duke retreated to the Ji’s palace complex and ascended the Wuzi Terrace.[30] Confucius ordered two officers to lead an assault against the rebels.[30] At least one of the two officers was a retainer of the Ji family, but they were unable to refuse the orders while in the presence of the duke, viscounts, and court.[29] The rebels were pursued and defeated at Gu.[30] Immediately after the revolt was defeated, the Ji family razed the Bi city walls to the ground.[30]

The attackers retreated after realizing that they would have to become rebels against the state and their lord.[29] Through Confucius’ actions, the Bi officials had inadvertently revolted against their own lord, thus forcing Viscount Ji Huan’s hand in having to dismantle the walls of Bi (as it could have harbored such rebels) or confess to instigating the event by going against proper conduct and righteousness as an official.[29] Dubs (1949) suggests that the incident brought to light Confucius’ foresight, practical political ability, and insight into human character.[29]

When it was time to dismantle the city walls of the Meng family, the governor was reluctant to have his city walls torn down and convinced the head of the Meng family not to do so.[30] The Zuozhuan recalls that the governor advised against razing the walls to the ground as he said that it made Cheng vulnerable to the Qi state and cause the destruction of the Meng family.[29] Even though Viscount Meng Yi gave his word not to interfere with an attempt, he went back on his earlier promise to dismantle the walls.[29]

Later in 498 BC, Duke Ding personally went with an army to lay siege to Cheng in an attempt to raze its walls to the ground, but he did not succeed.[31] Thus, Confucius could not achieve the idealistic reforms that he wanted including restoration of the legitimate rule of the duke.[32] He had made powerful enemies within the state, especially with Viscount Ji Huan, due to his successes so far.[33] According to accounts in the Zuozhuan and Shiji, Confucius departed his homeland in 497 BC after his support for the failed attempt of dismantling the fortified city walls of the powerful Ji, Meng, and Shu families.[34] He left the state of Lu without resigning, remaining in self-exile and unable to return as long as Viscount Ji Huan was alive.[33]

ExileThe Shiji stated that the neighboring Qi state was worried that Lu was becoming too powerful while Confucius was involved in the government of the Lu state. According to this account, Qi decided to sabotage Lu’s reforms by sending 100 good horses and 80 beautiful dancing girls to the duke of Lu. The duke indulged himself in pleasure and did not attend to official duties for three days. Confucius was disappointed and resolved to leave Lu and seek better opportunities, yet to leave at once would expose the misbehavior of the duke and therefore bring public humiliation to the ruler Confucius was serving. Confucius therefore waited for the duke to make a lesser mistake. Soon after, the duke neglected to send to Confucius a portion of the sacrificial meat that was his due according to custom, and Confucius seized upon this pretext to leave both his post and the Lu state.

After Confucius’s resignation, he began a long journey or set of journeys around the principality states of north-east and central China including WeySongZhengCaoChuQiChen, and Cai (and a failed attempt to go to Jin). At the courts of these states, he expounded his political beliefs but did not see them implemented.

According to the Zuozhuan, Confucius returned home to his native Lu when he was 68, after he was invited to do so by Ji Kangzi, the chief minister of Lu.[35] The Analects depict him spending his last years teaching 72 or 77 disciples and transmitting the old wisdom via a set of texts called the Five Classics.

During his return, Confucius sometimes acted as an advisor to several government officials in Lu, including Ji Kangzi, on matters including governance and crime.[35]

Burdened by the loss of both his son and his favorite disciples, he died at the age of 71 or 72. He died from natural causes. Confucius was buried in Kong Lin cemetery which lies in the historical part of Qufu in the Shandong Province.[36] The original tomb erected there in memory of Confucius on the bank of the Sishui River had the shape of an axe. In addition, it has a raised brick platform at the front of the memorial for offerings such as sandalwood incense and fruit.

Philosophy

Although Confucianism is often followed in a religious manner by the Chinese, many argue that its values are secular and that it is, therefore, less a religion than a secular morality. Proponents argue, however, that despite the secular nature of Confucianism’s teachings, it is based on a worldview that is religious.[37] Confucianism discusses elements of the afterlife and views concerning Heaven, but it is relatively unconcerned with some spiritual matters often considered essential to religious thought, such as the nature of souls. However, Confucius is said to have believed in astrology, saying: “Heaven sends down its good or evil symbols and wise men act accordingly”.[38]

The Analects of Confucius

In the Analects, Confucius presents himself as a “transmitter who invented nothing”. He puts the greatest emphasis on the importance of study, and it is the Chinese character for study () that opens the text. Far from trying to build a systematic or formalist theory, he wanted his disciples to master and internalize older classics, so that their deep thought and thorough study would allow them to relate the moral problems of the present to past political events (as recorded in the Annals) or the past expressions of commoners’ feelings and noblemen’s reflections (as in the poems of the Book of Odes).

Ethics

One of the deepest teachings of Confucius may have been the superiority of personal exemplification over explicit rules of behavior. His moral teachings emphasized self-cultivation, emulation of moral exemplars, and the attainment of skilled judgment rather than knowledge of rules. Confucian ethics may, therefore, be considered a type of virtue ethics. His teachings rarely rely on reasoned argument, and ethical ideals and methods are conveyed indirectly, through allusioninnuendo, and even tautology. His teachings require examination and context to be understood. A good example is found in this famous anecdote:

廄焚。子退朝,曰:“傷人乎?” 不問馬。

When the stables were burnt down, on returning from court Confucius said, “Was anyone hurt?” He did not ask about the horses.

Analects X.11 (tr. Waley), 10–13 (tr. Legge), or X-17 (tr. Lau)

By not asking about the horses, Confucius demonstrates that the sage values human beings over property; readers are led to reflect on whether their response would follow Confucius’s and to pursue self-improvement if it would not have. Confucius serves not as an all-powerful deity or a universally true set of abstract principles, but rather the ultimate model for others. For these reasons, according to many commentators, Confucius’s teachings may be considered a Chinese example of humanism.

One of his teachings was a variant of the Golden Rule, sometimes called the “Silver Rule” owing to its negative form:

己所不欲,勿施於人。

“What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others.”

子貢問曰:“有一言而可以終身行之者乎?”子曰:“其恕乎!己所不欲、勿施於人。”

Zi Gong [a disciple] asked: “Is there any one word that could guide a person throughout life?”
The Master replied: “How about ‘reciprocity’! Never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself.”

Analects XV.24, tr. David Hinton

Often overlooked in Confucian ethics are the virtues to the self: sincerity and the cultivation of knowledge. Virtuous action towards others begins with virtuous and sincere thought, which begins with knowledge. A virtuous disposition without knowledge is susceptible to corruption, and virtuous action without sincerity is not true righteousness. Cultivating knowledge and sincerity is also important for one’s own sake; the superior person loves learning for the sake of learning and righteousness for the sake of righteousness.

The Confucian theory of ethics as exemplified in lǐ (禮) is based on three important conceptual aspects of life: (a) ceremonies associated with sacrifice to ancestors and deities of various types, (b) social and political institutions, and (c) the etiquette of daily behavior. It was believed by some that lǐ originated from the heavens, but Confucius stressed the development of lǐ through the actions of sage leaders in human history. His discussions of lǐ seem to redefine the term to refer to all actions committed by a person to build the ideal society, rather than those simply conforming with canonical standards of ceremony.

In the early Confucian tradition, lǐ was doing the proper thing at the proper time, balancing between maintaining existing norms to perpetuate an ethical social fabric, and violating them in order to accomplish ethical good. Training in the lǐ of past sages cultivates in people virtues that include ethical judgment about when lǐ must be adapted in light of situational contexts.

In Confucianism, the concept of li is closely related to  (義), which is based upon the idea of reciprocity.  can be translated as righteousness, though it may simply mean what is ethically best to do in a certain context. The term contrasts with action done out of self-interest. While pursuing one’s own self-interest is not necessarily bad, one would be a better, more righteous person if one’s life was based upon following a path designed to enhance the greater good. Thus an outcome of  is doing the right thing for the right reason.

Just as action according to lǐ should be adapted to conform to the aspiration of adhering to , so  is linked to the core value of rén (仁).Rén consists of five basic virtues: seriousness, generosity, sincerity, diligence and kindness.[39] Rén is the virtue of perfectly fulfilling one’s responsibilities toward others, most often translated as “benevolence” or “humaneness”; translator Arthur Waley calls it “Goodness” (with a capital G), and other translations that have been put forth include “authoritativeness” and “selflessness.” Confucius’s moral system was based upon empathy and understanding others, rather than divinely ordained rules. To develop one’s spontaneous responses of rén so that these could guide action intuitively was even better than living by the rules of . Confucius asserts that virtue is a mean between extremes. For example, the properly generous person gives the right amount—not too much and not too little.[39]

Politics

Confucius’s political thought is based upon his ethical thought. He argued that the best government is one that rules through “rites” (lǐ) and people’s natural morality, and not by using bribery and coercion. He explained that this is one of the most important analects: “If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame. If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of the shame, and moreover will become good.” (Translated by James Legge) in the Great Learning (大學). This “sense of shame” is an internalisation of duty, where the punishment precedes the evil action, instead of following it in the form of laws as in Legalism.

Confucius looked nostalgically upon earlier days, and urged the Chinese, particularly those with political power, to model themselves on earlier examples. In times of division, chaos, and endless wars between feudal states, he wanted to restore the Mandate of Heaven (天命) that could unify the “world” (天下, “all under Heaven”) and bestow peace and prosperity on the people. Because his vision of personal and social perfections was framed as a revival of the ordered society of earlier times, Confucius is often considered a great proponent of conservatism, but a closer look at what he proposes often shows that he used (and perhaps twisted) past institutions and rites to push a new political agenda of his own: a revival of a unified royal state, whose rulers would succeed to power on the basis of their moral merits instead of lineage. These would be rulers devoted to their people, striving for personal and social perfection, and such a ruler would spread his own virtues to the people instead of imposing proper behavior with laws and rules.

Confucius did not believe in the concept of “democracy“, which is itself an Athenian concept unknown in ancient China, but could be interpreted by Confucius’s principles recommending against individuals electing their own political leaders to govern them, or that anyone is capable of self-government. He expressed fears that the masses lacked the intellect to make decisions for themselves, and that, in his view, since not everyone is created equal, not everyone has a right of self-government.[40]

While he supported the idea of government ruling by a virtuous king, his ideas contained a number of elements to limit the power of rulers. He argued for representing truth in language, and honesty was of paramount importance. Even in facial expression, truth must always be represented. Confucius believed that if a ruler is to lead correctly, by action, that orders would be unnecessary in that others will follow the proper actions of their ruler. In discussing the relationship between a king and his subject (or a father and his son), he underlined the need to give due respect to superiors. This demanded that the subordinates must advise their superiors if the superiors are considered to be taking a course of action that is wrong. Confucius believed in ruling by example, if you lead correctly, orders by force or punishment are not necessary.[41]

Legacy

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Confucius’s teachings were later turned into an elaborate set of rules and practices by his numerous disciples and followers, who organized his teachings into the Analects.[42][43] Confucius’s disciples and his only grandson, Zisi, continued his philosophical school after his death.[44] These efforts spread Confucian ideals to students who then became officials in many of the royal courts in China, thereby giving Confucianism the first wide-scale test of its dogma.

Two of Confucius’s most famous later followers emphasized radically different aspects of his teachings. In the centuries after his death, Mencius (孟子) and Xun Zi (荀子) both composed important teachings elaborating in different ways on the fundamental ideas associated with Confucius. Mencius (4th century BC) articulated the innate goodness in human beings as a source of the ethical intuitions that guide people towards rén, and lǐ, while Xun Zi (3rd century BC) underscored the realistic and materialistic aspects of Confucian thought, stressing that morality was inculcated in society through tradition and in individuals through training. In time, their writings, together with the Analects and other core texts came to constitute the philosophical corpus of Confucianism.

This realignment in Confucian thought was parallel to the development of Legalism, which saw filial piety as self-interest and not a useful tool for a ruler to create an effective state. A disagreement between these two political philosophies came to a head in 223 BC when the Qin state conquered all of China. Li Si, Prime Minister of the Qin dynasty, convinced Qin Shi Huang to abandon the Confucians’ recommendation of awarding fiefs akin to the Zhou Dynasty before them which he saw as being against to the Legalist idea of centralizing the state around the ruler. When the Confucian advisers pressed their point, Li Si had many Confucian scholars killed and their books burned—considered a huge blow to the philosophy and Chinese scholarship.

Under the succeeding Han and Tang dynasties, Confucian ideas gained even more widespread prominence. Under Wudi, the works of Confucius were made the official imperial philosophy and required reading for civil service examinations in 140 BC which was continued nearly unbroken until the end of the 19th century. As Mohism lost support by the time of the Han, the main philosophical contenders were Legalism, which Confucian thought somewhat absorbed, the teachings of Laozi, whose focus on more spiritual ideas kept it from direct conflict with Confucianism, and the new Buddhist religion, which gained acceptance during the Southern and Northern Dynasties era. Both Confucian ideas and Confucian-trained officials were relied upon in the Ming Dynasty and even the Yuan Dynasty, although Kublai Khan distrusted handing over provincial control to them.

During the Song dynasty, the scholar Zhu Xi (AD 1130–1200) added ideas from Daoism and Buddhism into Confucianism. In his life, Zhu Xi was largely ignored, but not long after his death, his ideas became the new orthodox view of what Confucian texts actually meant. Modern historians view Zhu Xi as having created something rather different and call his way of thinking Neo-Confucianism. Neo-Confucianism held sway in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam until the 19th century.

Confucius, Philosopher of the Chinese, published by Jesuit missionaries at Paris in 1687.

The works of Confucius were first translated into European languages by Jesuit missionaries in the 16th century during the late Ming dynasty. The first known effort was by Michele Ruggieri, who returned to Italy in 1588 and carried on his translations while residing in SalernoMatteo Ricci started to report on the thoughts of Confucius, and a team of Jesuits—Prospero IntorcettaPhilippe Couplet, and two others—published a translation of several Confucian works and an overview of Chinese history in Paris in 1687.[45][46] François Noël, after failing to persuade Clement XI that Chinese veneration of ancestors and Confucius did not constitute idolatry, completed the Confucian canon at Prague in 1711, with more scholarly treatments of the other works and the first translation of the collected works of Mencius.[47] It is thought that such works had considerable importance on European thinkers of the period, particularly among the Deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration of the system of morality of Confucius into Western civilization.[46][48]

In the modern era Confucian movements, such as New Confucianism, still exist, but during the Cultural Revolution, Confucianism was frequently attacked by leading figures in the Communist Party of China. This was partially a continuation of the condemnations of Confucianism by intellectuals and activists in the early 20th century as a cause of the ethnocentric close-mindedness and refusal of the Qing Dynasty to modernize that led to the tragedies that befell China in the 19th century.

Confucius’s works are studied by scholars in many other Asian countries, particularly those in the Chinese cultural sphere, such as Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Many of those countries still hold the traditional memorial ceremony every year.

The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community believes Confucius was a Divine Prophet of God, as were Lao-Tzu and other eminent Chinese personages.[49]

In modern times, Asteroid 7853, “Confucius”, was named after the Chinese thinker.[50]

Disciples

Zengzi (right) kneeling before Confucius (center), as depicted in a painting from the Illustrations of the Classic of Filial PietySong dynasty

Main article: Disciples of Confucius

Confucius began teaching after he turned 30, and taught more than 3,000 students in his life, about 70 of whom were considered outstanding. His disciples and the early Confucian community they formed became the most influential intellectual force in the Warring States period.[51] The Han dynasty historian Sima Qian dedicated a chapter in his Records of the Grand Historian to the biographies of Confucius’s disciples, accounting for the influence they exerted in their time and afterward. Sima Qian recorded the names of 77 disciples in his collective biography, while Kongzi Jiayu, another early source, records 76, not completely overlapping. The two sources together yield the names of 96 disciples.[52] 22 of them are mentioned in the Analects, while the Mencius records 24.[53]

Confucius did not charge any tuition, and only requested a symbolic gift of a bundle of dried meat from any prospective student. According to his disciple Zigong, his master treated students like doctors treated patients and did not turn anybody away.[52] Most of them came from Lu, Confucius’s home state, with 43 recorded, but he accepted students from all over China, with six from the state of Wey (such as Zigong), three from Qin, two each from Chen and Qi, and one each from CaiChu, and Song.[52] Confucius considered his students’ personal background irrelevant, and accepted noblemen, commoners, and even former criminals such as Yan Zhuoju and Gongye Chang.[54] His disciples from richer families would pay a sum commensurate with their wealth which was considered a ritual donation.[52]

Confucius’s favorite disciple was Yan Hui, most probably one of the most impoverished of them all.[53] Sima Niu, in contrast to Yan Hui, was from a hereditary noble family hailing from the Song state.[53] Under Confucius’s teachings, the disciples became well-learned in the principles and methods of government.[55] He often engaged in discussion and debate with his students and gave high importance to their studies in history, poetry, and ritual.[55] Confucius advocated loyalty to principle rather than to individual acumen, in which reform was to be achieved by persuasion rather than violence.[55] Even though Confucius denounced them for their practices, the aristocracy was likely attracted to the idea of having trustworthy officials who were studied in morals as the circumstances of the time made it desirable.[55] In fact, the disciple Zilu even died defending his ruler in Wey.[55]

Yang Hu, who was a subordinate of the Ji family, had dominated the Lu government from 505 to 502 and even attempted a coup, which narrowly failed.[55] As a likely consequence, it was after that that the first disciples of Confucius were appointed to government positions.[55] A few of Confucius’s disciples went on to attain official positions of some importance, some of which were arranged by Confucius.[56] By the time Confucius was 50 years old, the Ji family had consolidated their power in the Lu state over the ruling ducal house.[57] Even though the Ji family had practices with which Confucius disagreed and disapproved, they nonetheless gave Confucius’s disciples many opportunities for employment.[57] Confucius continued to remind his disciples to stay true to their principles and renounced those who did not, all the while being openly critical of the Ji family.[58]

Visual portraits

No contemporary painting or sculpture of Confucius survives, and it was only during the Han Dynasty that he was portrayed visually. Carvings often depict his legendary meeting with Laozi. Since that time there have been many portraits of Confucius as the ideal philosopher. The oldest known portrait of Confucius has been unearthed in the tomb of the Han dynasty ruler Marquis of Haihun (died 59 BC). The picture was painted on the wooden frame to a polished bronze mirror.[59]

In former times, it was customary to have a portrait in Confucius Temples; however, during the reign of Hongwu Emperor (Taizu) of the Ming dynasty, it was decided that the only proper portrait of Confucius should be in the temple in his home town, Qufu in Shandong. In other temples, Confucius is represented by a memorial tablet. In 2006, the China Confucius Foundation commissioned a standard portrait of Confucius based on the Tang dynasty portrait by Wu Daozi.

The South Wall Frieze in the courtroom of the Supreme Court of the United States depicts Confucius as a teacher of harmony, learning, and virtue.[60]

Fictional portrayals

There have been two film adaptations of Confucius’ life: Confucius (1940) starring Tang Huaiqiu, and Confucius (2010) starring Chow Yun-fat.

In music, Tori Amos imagines Confucius as working on a crossword puzzle in her 1992 song “Happy Phantom.”

Memorials

First entrance gate of the Temple of Confucius in Zhenhai

Soon after Confucius’s death, Qufu, his home town, became a place of devotion and remembrance. The Han dynasty Records of the Grand Historian records that it had already become a place of pilgrimage for ministers. It is still a major destination for cultural tourism, and many people visit his grave and the surrounding temples. In Sinic cultures, there are many temples where representations of the BuddhaLaozi, and Confucius are found together. There are also many temples dedicated to him, which have been used for Confucian ceremonies.

Followers of Confucianism have a tradition of holding spectacular memorial ceremonies of Confucius (祭孔) every year, using ceremonies that supposedly derived from Zhou Li (周禮) as recorded by Confucius, on the date of Confucius’s birth. In the 20th century, this tradition was interrupted for several decades in mainland China, where the official stance of the Communist Party and the State was that Confucius and Confucianism represented reactionary feudalist beliefs which held that the subservience of the people to the aristocracy is a part of the natural order. All such ceremonies and rites were therefore banned. Only after the 1990s did the ceremony resume. As it is now considered a veneration of Chinese history and tradition, even Communist Party members may be found in attendance.

In Taiwan, where the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) strongly promoted Confucian beliefs in ethics and behavior, the tradition of the memorial ceremony of Confucius (祭孔) is supported by the government and has continued without interruption. While not a national holiday, it does appear on all printed calendars, much as Father’s Day or Christmas Day do in the Western world.

In South Korea, a grand-scale memorial ceremony called Seokjeon Daeje is held twice a year on Confucius’s birthday and the anniversary of his death, at Confucian academies across the country and Sungkyunkwan in Seoul.

Descendants

See also: Family tree of Confucius in the main line of descent

Confucius’s descendants were repeatedly identified and honored by successive imperial governments with titles of nobility and official posts. They were honored with the rank of a marquis 35 times since Gaozu of the Han dynasty, and they were promoted to the rank of duke 42 times from the Tang dynasty to the Qing dynastyEmperor Xuanzong of Tang first bestowed the title of “Duke Wenxuan” on Kong Suizhi of the 35th generation. In 1055, Emperor Renzong of Song first bestowed the title of “Duke Yansheng” on Kong Zongyuan of the 46th generation.

During the Southern Song dynasty, the Duke Yansheng Kong Duanyou fled south with the Song Emperor to Quzhou in Zhejiang, while the newly established Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in the north appointed Kong Duanyou’s brother Kong Duancao who remained in Qufu as Duke Yansheng.[61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70] From that time up until the Yuan dynasty, there were two Duke Yanshengs, one in the north in Qufu and the other in the south at Quzhou. An invitation to come back to Qufu was extended to the southern Duke Yansheng Kong Zhu by the Yuan-dynasty Emperor Kublai Khan. The title was taken away from the southern branch after Kong Zhu rejected the invitation,[71] so the northern branch of the family kept the title of Duke Yansheng. The southern branch remained in Quzhou where they live to this day. Confucius’s descendants in Quzhou alone number 30,000.[72][73] The Hanlin Academy rank of Wujing boshi 五經博士 was awarded to the southern branch at Quzhou by a Ming Emperor while the northern branch at Qufu held the title Duke Yansheng.[74][75] The leader of the southern branch is 孔祥楷 Kong Xiangkai.[76]

In 1351, during the reign of Emperor Toghon Temür of the Yuan dynasty, 93rd-generation descendant Kong Huan (孔浣)’s 2nd son Kong Shao (孔昭) moved from China to Korea during the Goryeo Dynasty, and was received courteously by Princess Noguk (the Mongolian-born wife of the future king Gongmin). After being naturalized as a Korean citizen, he changed the hanja of his name from “昭” to “紹” (both pronounced so in Korean),[77] married a Korean woman and bore a son (Gong Yeo (Korean: 공여; Hanja: 孔帤), 1329–1397), therefore establishing the Changwon Gong clan (Korean: 창원 공씨; Hanja: 昌原 孔氏), whose ancestral seat was located in ChangwonSouth Gyeongsang Province. The clan then received an aristocratic rank during the succeeding Joseon Dynasty.[78][79][80][81][82] In 1794, during the reign of King Jeongjo, the clan then changed its name to Gokbu Gong clan (Korean: 곡부 공씨; Hanja: 曲阜 孔氏) in honor of Confucius’s birthplace Qufu (Korean: 곡부; Hanja: 曲阜; RRGokbu).[83]
Famous descendants include actors such as Gong Yoo (real name Gong Ji-cheol (공지철)) & Gong Hyo-jin (공효진); and artists such as male idol group B1A4 member Gongchan (real name Gong Chan-sik (공찬식)), singer-songwriter Minzy (real name Gong Min-ji (공민지)), as well as her great-aunt traditional folk dancer Gong Ok-jin (공옥진).

Despite repeated dynastic change in China, the title of Duke Yansheng was bestowed upon successive generations of descendants until it was abolished by the Nationalist Government in 1935. The last holder of the title, Kung Te-cheng of the 77th generation, was appointed Sacrificial Official to Confucius. Kung Te-cheng died in October 2008, and his son, Kung Wei-yi, the 78th lineal descendant, had died in 1989. Kung Te-cheng’s grandson, Kung Tsui-chang, the 79th lineal descendant, was born in 1975; his great-grandson, Kung Yu-jen, the 80th lineal descendant, was born in Taipei on January 1, 2006. Te-cheng’s sister, Kong Demao, lives in mainland China and has written a book about her experiences growing up at the family estate in Qufu. Another sister, Kong Deqi, died as a young woman.[84] Many descendants of Confucius still live in Qufu today.

A descendant of Confucius, H. H. Kung was the Premier of the Republic of China. One of his sons, Kong Lingjie 孔令傑 married Debra Paget[85] who gave birth to Gregory Kung (孔德基).

Confucius’s family, the Kongs, have the longest recorded extant pedigree in the world today. The father-to-son family tree, now in its 83rd generation,[86] has been recorded since the death of Confucius. According to the Confucius Genealogy Compilation Committee (CGCC), he has two million known and registered descendants, and there are an estimated three million in all.[87] Of these, several tens of thousands live outside of China.[87] In the 14th century, a Kong descendant went to Korea, where an estimated 34,000 descendants of Confucius live today.[87] One of the main lineages fled from the Kong ancestral home in Qufu during the Chinese Civil War in the 1940s and eventually settled in Taiwan.[84] There are also branches of the Kong family who have converted to Islam after marrying Muslim women, in Dachuan in Gansu province in the 1800s,[88] and in 1715 in Xuanwei in Yunnan province.[89] Many of the Muslim Confucius descendants are descended from the marriage of Ma Jiaga (马甲尕), a Muslim woman, and Kong Yanrong (孔彦嵘), 59th generation descendant of Confucius in the year 1480 and are found among the Hui and Dongxiang peoples.[90][91][92][93] The new genealogy includes the Muslims.[94] Kong Dejun (孔德軍) is a prominent Islamic scholar and Arabist from Qinghai province and a 77th generation descendant of Confucius.

Because of the huge interest in the Confucius family tree, there was a project in China to test the DNA of known family members of the collateral branches in mainland China.[95] Among other things, this would allow scientists to identify a common Y chromosome in male descendants of Confucius. If the descent were truly unbroken, father-to-son, since Confucius’s lifetime, the males in the family would all have the same Y chromosome as their direct male ancestor, with slight mutations due to the passage of time.[96] The aim of the genetic test was the help members of collateral branches in China who lost their genealogical records to prove their descent. However, in 2009, many of the collateral branches decided not to agree to DNA testing.[97] Bryan Sykes, professor of genetics at Oxford University, understands this decision: “The Confucius family tree has an enormous cultural significance,” he said. “It’s not just a scientific question.”[97] The DNA testing was originally proposed to add new members, many of whose family record books were lost during 20th-century upheavals, to the Confucian family tree.[98] The main branch of the family which fled to Taiwan was never involved in the proposed DNA test at all.

In 2013 a DNA test performed on multiple different families who claimed descent from Confucius found that they shared the same Y chromosome as reported by Fudan University.[99]

The fifth and most recent edition of the Confucius genealogy was printed by the CGCC.[100][101] It was unveiled in a ceremony at Qufu on September 24, 2009.[100][101] Women are now included for the first time.[102]

References

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Bibliography

Further reading

External links

Confuciusat Wikipedia’s sister projects

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

‘’Nasir Ahmad El-Rufai on Twitter: “It is my pleasure to unveil the 16 young Nigerians selected for the third cohort of the Kashim Ibrahim Fellowship, our leadership capacity building programme for young people. We look forward to welcoming them to Kaduna next month… https://t.co/iu8w4OnJkk https://t.co/3cS6ROgG3X” /’’

 

We followed up this lead that naturally aroused curiosity given what many term ‘’The Nigerian Question’’ What is this all about? Many Nigerians don’t know who Kashim Ibrahim was; not to talk about a Foundation instituted in his memory. We had believed that the list of beneficiaries on this gesture would be populated by northerners for the simple reason of the position of Kahim Ibrahim in Nigeria’s First Republic.  Sir Kashim Ibrahim, the first post-independence Governor of the Northern Region (1962-1966) who was known for his passion for education and selfless leadership which he demonstrated not only as Governor, but also as a Minister at various times. Without any doubt, Kashim Ibrahim deserves that honour of being celebrated just like Ooni Adesoji Aderemi, first Ceremonial governor of Western Region of Nigeria was remember today on the occasion of the fortieth anniversary of his transition.

 

THE KASHIM IBRAHIM FOUNDATION:  The Kashim Ibrahim Fellowship (KIF) is a one-year non-partisan leadership training programme for young Nigerians between the age of 25-35 years. The one-year Fellowship aims to create a network of high potential young Nigerians who are expected to rise to top leadership positions in the public sector and other spheres of activity over the next decade. Established in 2018, KIF is an initiative of the Kaduna State Government (KDSG).  The Fellowship’s objective is to develop and nurture leadership ability across Nigeria, with specific focus on the promising leaders of the future. It is our belief that this one-year programme would help establish a strong understanding of good governance in Fellows in addition to providing a structure that would help steer them towards active participation in and a commitment to public service and informed leadership in Nigeria.

 

MISSION: As indicated in Wikipedia and on the Foundation’s website,  ‘’The overall mission of this non-partisan programme, as envisioned by Governor Nasir el-Rufai, is in his words, “to raise the next generation of leaders who will most likely be absorbed into the Nigerian public sector having had a first-hand experience of its workings and challenges”. This Fellowship aims to change the perception of young Nigerians Sir Shettima Kashim Ibrahim, KCMGCBE (10 June 1910 – 25 July 1990)  was a Kanuri politician who was head of the Native Administration in Borno and was a minister for Social Services in the 1950s. He held the traditional title of Waziri of the Emirate of Borno after two previous Waziris had been forced to resign as a result of scandals in the Borno local administration. He was a close associate of Sir Ahmadu Bello.

 

WHY THE FOUNDATION: Inaugurating the Third Cohort of the Foundation a few days ago, Mallam Nasir el Rufai explained that ‘’the Kaduna State Government values young people. We have appointed many youths and vested them with responsibility to help deliver progressive outcomes for our people. We are persuaded that sustained mentorship is an effective path to raising effective leaders and public servants. In 2017, we decided to institutionalise a programme to contribute to building youth capacity through intellectual stimulation and practical exposure to the workings and challenges of public service.We established the Kashim Ibrahim Fellowship Programme as a deliberate investment in building leadership capacity among our youths.  The first set of fellows resumed in August 2018,  after a selection process that was rigorous and based on merit.’’

 

He continued: ‘’By the time of their graduation in July 2019, these 16 fellows, from all over Nigeria, had impressed us with their energy, zeal, talent and ability.  The best graduating fellow in the pioneer set, Jemimah Jatau, has already been admitted as a Mason Fellow, and to study for an MPA at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government.  The second set of fellows resumed in August 2019. They have lived up to the hopes that inspired the fellowship. A significant chunk of their programme time has fallen within the uncertainties created by the Covid-19 pandemic, but they have adapted magnificently.  The 16 fellows selected by the Governing Board for the third cohort have been selected based on the high standards set by the first two sets of fellows. ‘’Contrary to our plans, we are unable to expand the annual intake of fellows to 24 this year due to the disruptions unleashed by Covid-19.’’

 

The board, which comprises 16 members, will be chaired by Dele Olojede, a multiple award-winning journalist with First Bank Plc chairperson, Ibukun Awosika as member. Members of the board include Clara Ejembi, a professor at Ahmadu Bello University who was named the vice-chairperson; Ibukun Awosika, an indegene of Ibadan and the chairperson of First Bank of Nigeria; Hadiza Bala Usman, managing director, Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA); Segun Adeniyi, chairman of THISDAY editorial board; Maryam Uwais, special adviser to the president on social investments, and Ndidi Nwuneli, managing partner of Sahel Consulting. Other members are Muhammad Sani Abdullahi, chief of staff to the governor; Kadaria Ahmed, a journalist; Lola Shoneyin, an author; Asue Ighodalo, a lawyer; Jimi Lawal, an aide of the governor; Japheth Omojuwa, an activist; Bilya Bala and a representative of the Kashim Ibrahim family. The pioneer set of 16 young persons, selected from all over Nigeria, resumed in August 2018 and completed the 12-month fellowship in July 2019.

THE LESSONS:  We perceive two important lessons in this development/gesture. First are the gains from Nigeria’s diversity and dispassionate conduct by the ruling class.  A former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Nigeria, Hon. Justice Modibbo Alfa Belgore, CJN rtd once pointed out that the nation’s problems since independence have been caused by the elite and not the various constitutions that have been operated, noting that the country has the potential to be great: “Nigeria is a beautiful country, the pride of the black race. The present problems are the results of instability; had democratic governance not been terminated in 1966, we would have crossed the rubicon into developed nation, not underdeveloped nation”. As submitted in my book: ‘Nigeria; An Insider’s Reflections on the Nigerian Polity’,  ‘’it is abundantly clear that the groundwork for the failure of the first democratic experiment was laid even before independence, with political party leaders fanning embers of ethnicity and other issues which divided, rather than unite the country. It is appropriate, therefore, for the nation to review the blueprint of the constitution that would guide relationships and conducts. One highly contentious development that has to be accorded particular attention is indigeneship. The unrests and widespread disturbances in many parts of the country are attributable to this issue ethno-religious matters, citizenship, indigeneship and related issues that must be thoroughly and critically examined within the context of federalism.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Undying Legacy Of ODUA

By Eric Teniola

The South West governors have reconstituted the board of directors of Odua Company Limited. The new board is headed by Dr, Lawrence Olusegun Aina (65), past President of West Africa Bankers Association and former President of Otan-Ayegbaju Development Association in Osun state. Other members of the new board are Chief Segun Ojo, a former Commissioner for Finance, Budget and Economic Planning in Ondo State, Dr. Tola Kasali who served as Commissioner for Rural Development in Lagos State between 2003 and 2007, Barrister Seni Adio, SAN, the Managing Partner of Copley Partners (Solicitors & Barristers, Mr. Olusegun Olujobi who is ex-Accenture and Energy Industry player and Otunba Bimbo Ashiru, a renowned banker and immediate past Commissioner for Commerce and Industry in Ogun state. The Group Managing Director of the Company is Mr. Adewale Abiodun Raji, a former Managing Director of PZ Cussons Nigeria Plc., who was recently reappointed for another term. The inauguration of the new board is a welcome development, for Odua Investment Company is one of the three regional groupings in the country. The other two bodies are the Interim Common Services Agency for Northern Region and Eastern States Interim Assets and Liabilities Agency (ESIALA), which we don’t hear of, these days. Profitability was achieved by Odua Company between 2014 and 2018, an unprecedented dividend of N1.2billion was paid. The fulcrum of credible strategic partnership is gradually taking shape with the recent strides in the Imeko Tomato to Paste Project and the Westlink Iconic Estate JV at Alakia, Ibadan. These and many more like the Power Generation Project at Ikeja, The Farming Company Limited JV at Oke-Ako Ekiti, the Vitalo Brand Project are initiatives that are unfolding to grow the revenue base of the Company.

ANTECEDENTS: The Odua Investment Company is an offshoot of an Economic body of the Action Group, which came to power in 1952 in Western Region. The Action group (Egbe Afenifere) led by Chief Obafemi Awolowo was formed on March 21, 1951 at the Oke-Bola residence of Chief Awolowo in Ibadan. The house still stands today. I remember with nostalgia when I was a reporter in the Nigerian Tribune in 1972, I used to collect stories on phone in that house on the Oniru land case dispatched by the Nigerian Tribune correspondent in Lagos, Mr Bayo Osiyemi. It was that time I met Chief Awolowo for the first time in my life. I almost fainted seeing the man bearing in mind the myth I grew up with about Chief Awolowo in my home town in Idanre in Ondo state. Chief Obafemi Awolowo, its leader later stated that the party had been formed by himself and seven others at a meeting in his house in Ibadan on March 26, 1950. The seven others who formed Action Group with Chief Awolowo were Chief Samuel Olatunbosun Shonibare (1920-1964), then manager, UAC (Technical) Ltd, Lagos, later Managing Director of the Amalgamated Press of Nigeria Limited and Federal Publicity Secretary of the Action Group;

Chief Abiodun Akerele, a lawyer; S.T. Oredein, Secretary of the British-American Tobacco Company (BATC) Workers’ Union, later Principal organizing Secretary of the Action Group in the Western Region; Olatunji Dosunmu, a journalist, later Administrative Secretary of the Action Group in the Western Region; J. Ola Adigun, a journalist; Adeniga Akinsanya, Manager of the African Press Ltd, Ibadan and Ayo Akinsanya, a chemist and a druggist. At the convention of the party later, the following were elected—Chief Obafemi Awolowo (President), Dr. J.A. Doherty (Vice-President, West), Dr. E.O. Awduche (Vice-President, East), Alhaji Sule Maito (Vice-President, North), Mr. Ayotunde Rosiji (Federal Secretary), Alhaji S. O. Gbadamosi (Federal Treasurer), Mr. S.O. Shonibare (Federal Publicity Secretary), Mr. A.M.O. Akinloye (Legal Adviser, West), Mr. A. Adeoba (Legal Adviser, East), Rev. E.O. Alayande (Party Chaplain), Malam M.S. Yabagi (Party Imam), Dr. Akinola Maja (Father of the Party), Chief S.L. Akintola (Deputy Leader), Mr. S.T. Oredein (Principal Organising Secretary), Mr. O. Agunbiade- Bamishe (Party Manager) and Mr. Olatunji Dosunmu (Administrative Secretary). The other members of the party at the convention were Chief F.R.A. Williams, Chief Anthony Enahoro, Chief T. A. Odutola, Chief G. Akin Deko, Mr. M.A. Ajasin, Prince Adeleke Adedoyin, Chief S.A. Tinubu, Mr. S.O. Ighodaro, Mr. Nduka Eze, Mr.O.N. Rewane, Mr. E.O. Eyo, Mr. S.G. Ikoku, Prince R.N. Takon, Mr. A.J.U. Ekong, Mr. S.J. Una, Mr. Okoi Arikpo, Mr. J.A. Agba, Chief Okim Okwa Ahang, Mr. George Lawson, Miss R.T. Brown, Mr. B.E. Mbalu, Mr. J.S. Olawoyin, Chief D.O. Sanyaolu, Mr. D. Adesina, Mr. M.O. Ikongbe, Mr. O.Olu Pinnock, Mr.J.S. Tejuoso, Mr. G.B. Olowu, Alfa K.S. Oba, Mr. D.O. Ogunmade, Mr. Omoniyi Olanipekun, Mr. Peter Onu and Mr. Alex Peters.

FORMATION OF THE ACTION GROUP PARTY: The party held its first inauguration in Owo in the present Ondo state on 28 April, 1952 and they were hosted by the legendary Olowo of Owo, Sir James Titus Olateru Olagbegi II (1910-1998). The motto of the party was “freedom for all, life more abundant”. It was the party’s belief that “the people of Western Nigeria in particular, and of Nigeria in general, would have life more abundant when they enjoy freedom from British rule, freedom from ignorance, freedom disease and freedom from want”.
In setting up the Action Group, Chief Obafemi Awolowo, GCFR, had two broad objectives in mind, one was political, and the other was economical. Chief Awolowo believed at that time that political party funding are the methods that a political party uses to raise money for campaign and routine activities. As for the political, he enlisted Chief Akintola, Chief Enahoro and others. That political arrangement broke down later. As for the economic, he enlisted Chief Samuel Olatunbosun Shonibare (19201-1964), Chief Sule Oyesola Gbadamosi from Ikorodu and Chief Alfred Ogbeyiwa Erewarone Rewane (1916-1995) alias Osabokolo from Warri, who later became Chairman Western Nigeria Development Company. In terms of managing business, Chief Shonibare, Chief Rewane and Chief Gbadamosi were gifted. They were capable of turning anything to an asset.

It was the same scenario that played out in South Africa in 1994 when President Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (1918-2013) encouraged the then Vice President Thambo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (77) to be in charge of government while the present President of South Africa, Mr. Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa (67), then secretary of the National Union of Mine Workers to be in charge of the businesses for the African National Congress. The arrangement worked then in that it reduced rivalry. It paid off for Mr Ramaphosa who has an estimated net worth of $450million as of 2018, with 31poperties and previously-held notable ownership in companies such as McDonald’s South Africa, chair of the board for MTN and member of the board for Lomnin Chief Shonibare and his group established the National Investment Company along with Chief Rewane and Chief Gbadamosi. It was this company that built the Western House in Lagos, Cocoa house in Ibadan and Bristol hotel in Lagos. It was the same company that built most of the companies that are under Odua Investment Company today. It was this group that was behind the Western Region partnership in the establishment of worldwide redifusion in Ibadan, Nigerian Plastic Company (1954), Ibadan, Nidogas, Lagos, Nigersol Construction Company (1959), Nigerian Water Resources Development Company (1959), Ibadan, Nigerian Pre-Pressed and Concrete Company, Abeokuta, Crittal Hope Nigerian Ltd., Mushin, Vono (West Africa) Mushin, Tower Aluminium Ltd Ikeja, Asbestos Cement, Ikeja, Nigerian Sugar Company, Apapa, Nigerian Mosaic and Glass Manufacturing Company, Ikeja, Pioneer Biscuit Company, Apapa, West African Portland Company, Ewekoro, Nigerian Textile Mills Ltd., Ikeja

Let’s take Chief Shonibare for example. His career began in 1936 as a clerk for U.A.C in Ibadan where he worked from 1936 to 1942, he was then promoted Chief Clerk and book-keeper at Ijebu-Ode in 1942. He rose to become office manager, technical department before leaving the firm in 1952. Upon leaving UAC, he joined Amalgamated Press, publishers of the Daily Service which was then a political mouth-piece of the Action Group. During his tenure, the company launched the Sunday Express an apolitical weekly magazine and also the launched Daily Express in partnership with the Thomson Group. Under his leadership, Amalgamated Press had editors like Chief Victor Olabisi Onabanjo (1927-1990) and Alhaji Lateef Jakande(90), who later became governors. In 1958, Shonibare became managing director of the National Investment Property Company, he was invited to be the MD by S.O. Gbadamosi, a board member. While working for U.A.C. in Ijebu Ode, his supervisor was Mr Samuel Olukoya. At party in 1942, he was introduced to his daughter Ms Alice Olukoya, they got married in 1946.
He was managing director of National Investment and Properties Corporation, a private company that was linked with AG and the regional government and whose directors were party members. The company was formed in 1958. When a state of emergency became effective in the Western Region, Chief Shonibare was limited to Ondo town. He died in January 1964. Prior to his death, he founded Shonny Investments which was in the process of developing Maryland Estate in Lagos. He was also involved in a mobile film unit and a printing business.

FORESIGHT: As for Chief Rewane, he started his career as a manager trainee with UAC and became the beach master, Lagos Customs Wharf for the firm. In the 1940s he left UAC and focused on importing goods, especially cow bones and black pepper and then in the 1950s, he was also into the timber trade and he owned the Rex club in Yaba, Lagos where Chief Olabinjo Bobby Benson (1922-1983) was a regular musician. During the pre-independence era in Nigeria, Rewane was affiliated with the Action Group, he became the chairman of the Western Nigeria Development Company. Chief Gbadamosi was a household name in Ikorodu, especially in terms of business which is still the centre of commerce in the present Lagos state. The rate at which Chief Obafemi Awolowo was developing the Western Region at that time was unbelievable and at a very short period. His achievements were laudable. Hence the envy. 1962 was the worst year for the Action Group with political landmines planted by the party’s adversaries. In February 1962, the party was engulfed in a serious crises in Jos during its annual congress.

On May 29, 1962, a state of emergency was declared by the Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. The motion was approved by 209 votes to 36 in the House of Representatives and in the Senate by 32 votes to 7 with two abstentions. He then appointed Senator Adekoyejo Moses Majekodunmi (1916-2012), CFR, the Mayegun of Lagos and Otun balogun of Egba Christians, as the administrator of Western Region. The following day he arrived in Ibadan with his ADC, Captain Murtala Mohammed (1938-1976). The first act of Dr. Majekodunmi on arrival was to order the restrictions of the leading political personalities in the Western Region including Chief Obafemi Awolowo, GCFR, (1909-1987), Chief Samuel Ladoke Akintola (1910-1966), Chief Ayotunde Rosiji (1917-2000), Chief Dauda Soroye Adegbenro (1909-1975), Chief Frederick Rotimi Alade Williams (1920-2005) and the leader of opposition at that time, Chief Victor Babaremilekun Adetokunbo Fanikayode (1921-1995).
On June 20, 1962, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, the Prime Minister of the Federation, appointed a commission headed by Justice George Baptist Ayodola Coker, to inquire into the financial and investment policies and practices, the management and the business operations of six statutory corporations in Western Nigeria since October 1, 1954.

FORESIGHT OF THE FOUNDING FATHERS: The affected companies are Western Region Marketing Board, the Western Nigeria Development Corporation, the Western Region Finance Corporation and the Western Region Housing Corporation. Other members of the panel were Mr Oladiran Booyamin Kassim, Acting Judge of the High Court of Eastern Nigeria, and Mr. Akintola Williams (100), a Lagos Chartered Accountant. The Commission sat for 92days and had 50witnesses. Chief Awolowo who on November 2, 1962, had been charged again with conspiring to overthrow the Federal Government by force had refused to give evidence before the Coker Commission of Inquiry. From Lagos Prison, when waiting trial, he sent a letter to the Chairman of the inquiry, Dr. Coker saying that he had come to conclusion that no useful purpose would be served by his further participation in the inquiry. The enquiry did not find Chief Awolowo guilty. They made only two recommendations that the Western Nigeria Marketing Board should take over immediately all properties of the National Investment and Properties Company Ltd, that the Board should take steps to recover from the Action Group a sum of N8, 000,000 which Action Group had received from the National Investment and Properties Company between April 18, 1958 and May 31, 1962. In a White Paper issued with the report, the Federal Government endorsed it. In a statement signed by Chief Awolowo, the Action Group rejected the report. The party alleged that it was “produced with unprecedented ruthless speed and waton disregard for facts.”

Incidentally, the affected companies mentioned at the Coker Commission of enquiry are today the foundation upon which Odua Investment Company was built. They are today the goldmines. The stone that the builders rejected has now become the corner stone.
Odua Investment Company was formally established in 1976 when Ondo and Ogun states were created out of Western state. The company was to take charge of the assets and liabilities of the whole Western Region. As a reporter with THE NIGERIAN HERALD at that time, I covered the inauguration of the new company at Cocoa house in Ibadan with the governor of Oyo state, Colonel David Medayese Jemibewon (79) from Aiyetoro Gbede in Kogi state presiding with two other governors present namely, Colonel Seidu Ayodele Balogun (Ogun) from Ido Ani in Ondo state and Wing Commader David Ita Ikpeme (Ondo). The pioneer Group Managing Director of the Company then was Mr. Christopher Sunday Olatunji Akande. Mr. Akande (1927-2005) from Arigidi, Akoko in Ondo state. The same town that produced Justice Olakunle Joseph Orojo (1923-2009), the first indigenous Director of Law School, Chief Felix Idowu Ayegbusi (1935-2019), former National Chairman, Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, Pastor T.B. Joshua and Aare Ona Kakanfo, Gani Adams. After Chief Akande was Chief Francis Mogaji from Efon-Alaye in Ekiti state, 1979 to 1983, an Accountant from Ekiti State who previously worked with UAC & Food Specialties now Nestle Nigeria Plc,.Chief Iyowu from Ogun State took over from Chief Mogaji and served from 1984 to 1989. He was previously Managing Director of Cocoa Industries Ltd Ikeja, who processed Cocoa beans to Cocoa Butter and Cake and manufactured d VITALO Cocoa beverage that ranked 3rd to Bournvita and Milo in this Category. Chief Olufemi Adewumi also from Ekiti State who served as MD of Wemabod Estates Ltd before becoming Group Managing Director from 1989 to 1993, Alhaji Aruna, a Lawyer from Oyo State was Group Managing Director from 1994 to 1997 while Sir Remi Omotoso, from Ekiti state, ex-Unilever served from 1998 to 2004, Dr Adebayo Jimoh Ex John Holt was Group Managing Director from 2005 to 2014.

The functioning Companies of Odua Group are Wemabod Estates Ltd (Real Estate), Glanvill Enthoven (Insurance Brokers), Lagos Airport Hotel, Ikeja, Premier Hotel and Lafia Hotel at Ibadan (Hospitality), E & O Power & Equipment Leasing and Odua Printing & Publishing Co Ltd. Prominent Companies where Odua Group have Minority interests courtesy of being seed investor are Nigerite Ltd, Lafarge Wapco, Wema Bank Plc, Tower Aluminum Plc, Great Nigeria Insurance Plc, Crittall Hope, Ire Clay Products Ltd, SKG-Pharma etc The people who flew the flag of Odua Investment Company especially the past and present governors who served in the south west, are appreciated. The flag must not fly half-mast during the era of Arakunrin Oluwarotimi Akeredolu, SAN,(Ondo), Mr. Babajide Sanwo-Olu(Lagos), Mr. Gboyega Oyetola (Osun), Mr. Seyi Makinde (Oyo), Dr. Kayode Fayemi (Ekiti) and Prince Dapo Abiodun(Ogun). I also appreciate Otunba Mohammed Jobi-Fele (1940-2011), a cocoa merchant from Ikare in Ondo state, who had earlier served as Chairman of Odua and who stood his ground during his tenure and ensured that the company must survive and be sustained.

I understand that the Odua Investment Company wants to diversify into agriculture which was the main goal of Chief Obafemi Awolowo when he established the farm settlements in the old Western Region. Efforts must be made to save Odua Investment Company and the South West governors must ensure that this regional legacy must not only be sustained but improved upon. As long as Odua Investment Company exists those clamouring for restructuring and regionalism are on solid ground. If other zones of this country are encouraged to develop on their own, there will be less dependence on the centre. And the way we are going now, there may be nothing left to share again in the centre. In short we are heading towards a situation where YOU ARE ON YOUR OWN.

The Author Dr. Bahira Trask is Professor and Chair of the Department of Human Development and Family Sciences at the University of Delaware. She holds a B.A. in Political Science with a concentration in International Relations from Yale University and a Ph.D. in Cultural Anthropology from the University of Pennsylvania. Her research focuses on globalization, social policies, gender and family change in Western and non-Western countries, and she presents regularly on these topics at international, national, and local forums. D

Executive Summary The implementation, success, and sustainability of SDGs 16 and 11 are greatly dependent on a family focused approach that takes into consideration the contexts within which decisions about laws, policies, and programmes are made. Isolated approaches that target individuals without consideration of the larger family environments in which they are embedded are destined to fail. It is thus, imperative that families in all their various forms, need to be recognized, targeted, strengthened, and supported. SDG16 promoting peaceful and inclusive societies relies on families to create and raise the next generation of peaceful, stable citizens and productive workers. Encouraging positive child and youth development is a key component of this goal, as well as stabilizing family environments through strengthening family relationships and providing basic financial stability. The eradication of poverty is key to decreasing stressors on families. SDG16.3 promoting the rule of law lays the foundation for peace. Regulatory frameworks that are based on a human rights approach, promote participation, take into account gender equality and protect marginalized groups. States have an obligation under the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights that was adapted in 1966 to care for the social and economic welfare of their citizens. Children specifically have a legal right to family life. SDG16.9 providing legal identity for all is a fundamental aspect of human rights. Proportionally, women and marginalized groups are less likely to have a legal identity and face more and higher barriers. Lack of legal identity hinders the ability to exercise civil and political rights and secure socio-economic benefits from the state. The displacement of over 65 million people as of the end of 2016 also creates serious challenges with respect to access to legal identities. SDG 11.1 ensuring access for all to adequate safe and adequate housing and services is foundational for family life: having a decent home allows members to access education, health, and employment opportunities. Specifically, low-income families are affected by sub-standard housing. States need to regulate the runaway housing markets that are dominating the global rental and homeownership scene. Moreover, contemporary experiments in multigenerational living promise to re-center family life and are leading to successful outcomes for youth and the elderly. SDG 11.3 enhancing participatory urbanization can only occur if representation from multiple constituencies throughout society work together. Inclusive societies take into account the special needs of women, and vulnerable and disadvantaged groups. Inclusion leads to the design of more functional urban spaces. SDG11.7 providing access to safe and inclusive green spaces is key for encouraging well-being. Recent research indicates that being able to access nature facilitates physical and mental health and connectedness to family, friends and home. The 2030 Agenda is based on integration and an emphasis on a global compact focusing on universal participation, shared responsibility, and improved accountability. Sustainable development can only be carried out through a focus on families combined with participatory leadership, adherence to the rule of law, and a stronger role advocating for their citizens by states. Joint efforts by transnational, national, and local stakeholders will be the key to success. 5 The Role of Families and Family Policies in Achieving

The Importance of a Family Focus to the Success of the SDGs A fundamental challenge to implementing Agenda 2030 and the SDGs is that an intensive, specifically Western focus and debate in recent years on the diverse and changing forms of families, has led to a programmatic and academic lack of focus on the critical role that families play in the lives of individuals, and thus, in the implementation of policies and programmes in Western and non-Western contexts (Trask, 2010; Trask, 2015). Different social, cultural, and economic contexts will give rise to varied family forms. Despite this variation, the fundamental obligations, rights and duties of how closely related individuals are bound to one another, remain, and must be adequately supported in order to contribute to the development of children and the stabilization of adult personalities (Baumrind, 2005; Bogenschneider, 2014). Furthermore, shrinking state support for social services around the world is creating an environment in which families are more, not less important to the health and well-being of individuals, especially children, those who are ill, have disabilities as well as older persons. Family Functions. In a classic report on family support, Ooms (1996) highlighted the fact that it is impossible to create social change without a clear-cut family focus. She identified four functions of families that are relevant to the successful implementation of social agendas, policies, and programmes: 1. Families provide individuals through membership, a sense of personal and social identity. Families give a form of meaning to most people’s lives and a sense of belonging that often extends to their communities as well. 2. Families are the unit of basic

economic support for their members and for society. They provide shelter, food and clothing for their dependents. 3. Families around the world continue to be the most efficient unit for rearing and nurturing children (despite some failed experiments to the contrary historically). They promote the well-being, health, education and safety for children and are the primary resource in early life for social status and morals and values. 4. Families provide care for those vulnerable individuals that cannot live on their own such as the disabled, the terminally ill, and the frail elderly (Ooms, 1996, p. 6). These foundational aspects of families are the underpinning of all societies and provide the starting point on which all other policies and programmes need to be built.

Implementing the SDGs Through Family Focused Approaches. Poverty and inequality lie at the heart of implementing the SDGs for families across the globe. Growing economic disparities have widened the gap between families within and between societies. Development efforts can only succeed if they take into account the protection and promotion of the rights of vulnerable populations such as the extremely poor, children, persons with disabilities, and older persons, as well as the promotion of equality between women and men in families and communities. These populations cannot and should not be addressed in isolation. It is their membership as part of family groups that defines critical aspects of their experiences. Historically, families have always been the primary group to socialize children and to teach and transmit values. However, the changes brought on through globalization have impacted families world-wide. Particularly in Western societies, the “traditional” family composed of a married couple with children where the woman’s primary role is as caregiver and homemaker and the man as provider and father, has weakened as an institution and has been replaced by “families of choice.” These families of choice include cohabiting partners, voluntarily childless families single parent households, and step-families among others. These transformations are often attributed to increased secularization, the growth of individualism with an emphasis on selffulfillment, new forms of reproductive technologies, and innovations in contraception. However, one serious consequence of these changes has been a politicized discourse about the role of family in society and specifically which norms now constitute the “right” or “acceptable” norms (Bogenschneider et al. 2012; Trask, 2010). The politicization of family has led to a fragmentation of scholarship on the various aspects of family life, as well as a decreased policy emphasis on the needs and supports for families. We cannot speak of providing access to rights frameworks, a legal identity or housing, just Part 1: SDG16 Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels Families create and raise the next generation of citizens and productive workers, raise caring and committed citizens, make efficient investments to reach societal goals and provide an effective way of promoting positive child and youth development (Bogenschneider & Corbett, 2010). Empirical, longitudinal studies illustrate that when families are supported through appropriate policies, societies benefit through having a caring, committed group of citizens. Families are also the primary unit that promotes peace in society. For instance, Cole and Rutter (1993) suggested that when families create a “sociology of peace” in their family systems, these models are 10 transformative in national and international contexts of inequality and political violence. They highlight the notion that families can be helped in developing “the skills necessary to bring about a peaceful balance between the demands of the social, ecological, economic, and emotional/spiritual aspects of their existence” (p. 269). From this perspective, the interrelationship and interdependence of members of families are a micro-level reflection of the interdependence of people, states, and the global environment. Empirical evidence suggests that when individuals are at peace with themselves, they are more likely to lead peaceful family lives. In other words, generally speaking, peaceful families are likely to have peaceful internal members (Cole & Rutter, 1993). As members of a family interact in a peaceful manner, this synergy is reflected to the outer world. Thus, a setting with peaceful families will likely be a peaceful environment. Building on this notion, peaceful communities with peaceful members leads to nonviolent nations who in turn pursue less conflictual relations, leading to a more peaceful world. These interconnected relationships amongst individuals, families, and larger social structures are key: families are the link between creating peace in individuals, peace in society, and peace between nations. When viewed from this perspective, families become the crucial mechanism and active agent in promoting and disseminating global peace (Cole & Rutter, 1993). Families, Children and Political Violence War, terrorism and violence have deleterious effects on families and children. UNICEF estimates that currently worldwide, nearly 28 million children have been displaced through force. This includes about 10 million child refugees, 1 million asylum-seeking children, and 17 million children who have been displaced within their own countries through violence and conflict (UNICEF, 2018). In fact, in the period between 2005 and 2015, the number of child refugees doubled from 4 million to 8 million. In 2015, children made up 51 per cent of the world’s refugees despite being less than one third of the global population.

It is normal for parents to argue, but the way these disagreements affect children varies greatly. What can parents and carers do to limit the harm caused by their rows? How parents’ arguments really affect their children

What happens at home really does affect children’s long-term mental health and development.

But it is not only the relationship between the parent and child that is important.

How parents get on with each other also plays a big role in a child’s wellbeing, with the potential to affect everything from mental health to academic success and future relationships.

But there is the chance for some good to come out of a “positive” row.

In most cases, arguments will have little or no negative effects for children.

But when parents shout and are angry with each other, when they consistently withdraw or give each other the “silent treatment”, problems can sometimes arise.

UK and international research conducted over several decades through observations in the home, long-term follow up work and experimental studies, suggests that from as young as six months, children exposed to conflict may have increased heart rates and stress hormone responses.

Infants, children and adolescents can show signs of disrupted early brain development, sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and other serious problems as a result of living with severe or chronic inter-parental conflict.

Similar effects are also seen in children who are exposed to ongoing but less intense conflict, compared with children whose parents constructively negotiate or resolve conflicts.

Nature or nurture?

The impact on children is not always as might be expected.

For example, divorce – and parents deciding to live apart – has often been seen as having a particularly damaging and lasting effect on many children.

But in some cases, it is now thought that it could be the arguments that take place between parents before, during and after a separation that do the damage, rather than the break-up itself.

Similarly, it has often been assumed that genetics play a defining role in how children respond to conflict.

And it is true that “nature” is central to a child’s mental health – playing a part in problems from anxiety, to depression and psychosis.

Confucianism uses the family as the basis of society, and the relationships of the family members define proper social and political behavior. In a family, children respect the elders, ancestors are venerated and adults protect the children. … Everyone has a duty to each other member of society.Feb 14, 201Confucianism uses the family as the basis

of society, and the relationships of the family members define proper social and political behavior. … The reciprocal duties found within the family and the base virtue of respect are called filial piety.Feb 14, 2015

Government and society in China were grounded in the Confucian philosophy, which held that there was a basic order in the universe and a natural harmony linking man, nature, and the cosmos (heaven); it also held that man was by nature a social being, and that the natural order of the universe should be reflected in …

The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice, kindness, and sincerity.

The worldly concern of Confucianism rests upon the belief that human beings are fundamentally good, and teachable, improvable, and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor, especially self-cultivation and self-creation. Confucian thought focuses on the cultivation of virtue in a morally organised world.

Some of the basic Confucian ethical concepts and practices include rén, yì, and lǐ, and zhì. Rén (仁, ‘benevolence’ or ‘humaneness’) is the essence of the human being which manifests as compassion. It is the virtue-form of Heaven. Yì (义; 義) is the upholding of righteousness and the moral disposition to do good.

Families are essential for social cohesion, the socialisation of children and individual well-being; they are the base from which children and adults can learn, work, and contribute to society. They play an indispensable role in care, particularly for vulnerable members of society, such as the disabled and elderly.

Having a close-knit and supportive family provides emotional support, economic well-being, and increases overall health. However, the opposite is also true. When family life is characterized by stress and conflict, the health of family members tends to be negatively affected.

How do the family problems of early life affect a child’s personality?

Children who experience family disruptions between birth and age 16 score significantly lower in terms of self-esteem and internal locus of control. This is both observed when measured at age 10 or at age 16. They also score significantly higher on the Rutter index for behavioural problems at ages 5, 10, and 16.

How can a family break up affect a child’s development?

A child may feel: a sense of loss – separation from a parent can mean you lose not only your home, but your whole way of life. … fearful about being left alone – if one parent can go, perhaps the other will do the same. angry at one or both parents for the relationship breakdown.

Confucius

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Confucius (Chinese: 孔子); born Kǒng Qiū (Chinese: 孔丘); (/kənˈfjuːʃəs/ kən-FEW-shəs;[1] 551 BC–479 BC)[2][3] was a Chinese philosopher and politician of the Spring and Autumn period.

The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice, kindness, and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin dynasty. Following the victory of Han over Chu after the collapse of Qin, Confucius’s thoughts received official sanction in the new government and were further developed into a system known in the West as Neo-Confucianism, and later New Confucianism (Modern Neo-Confucianism).

Confucius is traditionally credited with having authored or edited many of the Chinese classic texts including all of the Five Classics, but modern scholars are cautious of attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself. Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled in the Analects, but only many years after his death.

Confucius’s principles have commonality with Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong family loyalty, ancestor veneration, and respect of elders by their children and of husbands by their wives, recommending family as a basis for ideal government. He espoused the well-known principle “Do not do unto others what you do not want done to yourself”, the Golden Rule. He is also a traditional deity in Daoism.

Confucius is widely considered as one of the most important and influential individuals in human history. His teaching and philosophy greatly impacted people around the world and remain influential today.[4][5]

Name

The name “Confucius” is a Latinized form of the Mandarin Chinese “Kǒng Fūzǐ” (孔夫子, meaning “Master Kǒng”), and was coined in the late 16th century by the early Jesuit missionaries to China.[6] Confucius’s clan name was “Kǒng” (孔; Old Chinese*‍[k]ʰˤoŋʔ), and his given name was “Qiū” (丘; OC: *‍[k]ʷʰə). His “capping name”, given upon reaching adulthood and by which he would have been known to all but his older family members, was “Zhòngní” (仲尼, OC:*‍N-‍truŋ-‍s nr[əj]), the “Zhòng” indicating that he was the second son in his family.[6][7]

Life

Early life

.

Further information: Family tree of Confucius in the main line of descent

It is thought that Confucius was born on September 28, 551 BC,[2][8] in Zou (, in modern Shandong province).[8][9] The area was notionally controlled by the kings of Zhou but effectively independent under the local lords of Lu, who ruled from the nearby city of Qufu. His father Kong He (or Shuliang He) was an elderly commandant of the local Lu garrison.[10] His ancestry traced back through the dukes of Song to the Shang dynasty which had preceded the Zhou.[11][12][13][14] Traditional accounts of Confucius’s life relate that Kong He’s grandfather had migrated the family from Song to Lu.[15]

Kong He died when Confucius was three years old, and Confucius was raised by his mother Yan Zhengzai () in poverty.[16] His mother would later die at less than 40 years of age.[16] At age 19 he married Qiguan (亓官), and a year later the couple had their first child, Kong Li (孔鯉).[16] Qiguan and Confucius would later have two daughters together, one of whom is thought to have died as a child.[17]

Confucius was educated at schools for commoners, where he studied and learned the Six Arts.[18]

Confucius was born into the class of shi (士), between the aristocracy and the common people. He is said to have worked in various government jobs during his early 20s, and as a bookkeeper and a caretaker of sheep and horses, using the proceeds to give his mother a proper burial.[16][19] When his mother died, Confucius (aged 23) is said to have mourned for three years, as was the tradition.[19]

Political career

Western Han (202 BC – 9 AD) fresco depicting Confucius (and Laozi), from a tomb of Dongping CountyShandong province, China

In Confucius’s time, the state of Lu was headed by a ruling ducal house.[20] Under the duke were three aristocratic families, whose heads bore the title of viscount and held hereditary positions in the Lu bureaucracy.[21] The Ji family held the position “Minister over the Masses”, who was also the “Prime Minister”; the Meng family held the position “Minister of Works”; and the Shu family held the position “Minister of War”.[21] In the winter of 505 BC, Yang Hu—a retainer of the Ji family—rose up in rebellion and seized power from the Ji family.[21] However, by the summer of 501 BC, the three hereditary families had succeeded in expelling Yang Hu from Lu.[21] By then, Confucius had built up a considerable reputation through his teachings, while the families came to see the value of proper conduct and righteousness, so they could achieve loyalty to a legitimate government.[22] Thus, that year (501 BC), Confucius came to be appointed to the minor position of governor of a town.[22] Eventually, he rose to the position of Minister of Crime.[22]

Confucius desired to return the authority of the state to the duke by dismantling the fortifications of the city—strongholds belonging to the three families.[23] This way, he could establish a centralized government.[23] However, Confucius relied solely on diplomacy as he had no military authority himself.[23] In 500 BC, Hou Fan—the governor of Hou—revolted against his lord of the Shu family.[23] Although the Meng and Shu families unsuccessfully besieged Hou, a loyalist official rose up with the people of Hou and forced Hou Fan to flee to the Qi state.[23] The situation may have been in favor for Confucius as this likely made it possible for Confucius and his disciples to convince the aristocratic families to dismantle the fortifications of their cities.[23] Eventually, after a year and a half, Confucius and his disciples succeeded in convincing the Shu family to raze the walls of Hou, the Ji family in razing the walls of Bi, and the Meng family in razing the walls of Cheng.[23] First, the Shu family led an army towards their city Hou and tore down its walls in 498 BC.[23]

Soon thereafter, Gongshan Furao (also known as Gongshan Buniu), a retainer of the Ji family, revolted and took control of the forces at Bi.[24][25] He immediately launched an attack and entered the capital Lu.[23] Earlier, Gongshan had approached Confucius to join him, which Confucius considered as he wanted the opportunity to put his principles into practice but he gave up on the idea in the end.[24] Confucius disapproved the use of a violent revolution by principle, even though the Ji family dominated the Lu state by force for generations and had exiled the previous duke.[24] Creel (1949) states that, unlike the rebel Yang Hu before him, Gongshan may have sought to destroy the three hereditary families and restore the power of the duke.[26] However, Dubs (1946) is of the view that Gongshan was encouraged by Viscount Ji Huan to invade the Lu capital in an attempt to avoid dismantling the Bi fortified walls.[25] Whatever the situation may have been, Gongshan was considered an upright man who continued to defend the state of Lu, even after he was forced to flee.[26][27]

During the revolt by Gongshan, Zhong You had managed to keep the duke and the three viscounts together at the court.[27] Zhong You was one of the disciples of Confucius and Confucius had arranged for him to be given the position of governor by the Ji family.[28] When Confucius heard of the raid, he requested that Viscount Ji Huan allow the duke and his court to retreat to a stronghold on his palace grounds.[29] Thereafter, the heads of the three families and the duke retreated to the Ji’s palace complex and ascended the Wuzi Terrace.[30] Confucius ordered two officers to lead an assault against the rebels.[30] At least one of the two officers was a retainer of the Ji family, but they were unable to refuse the orders while in the presence of the duke, viscounts, and court.[29] The rebels were pursued and defeated at Gu.[30] Immediately after the revolt was defeated, the Ji family razed the Bi city walls to the ground.[30]

The attackers retreated after realizing that they would have to become rebels against the state and their lord.[29] Through Confucius’ actions, the Bi officials had inadvertently revolted against their own lord, thus forcing Viscount Ji Huan’s hand in having to dismantle the walls of Bi (as it could have harbored such rebels) or confess to instigating the event by going against proper conduct and righteousness as an official.[29] Dubs (1949) suggests that the incident brought to light Confucius’ foresight, practical political ability, and insight into human character.[29]

When it was time to dismantle the city walls of the Meng family, the governor was reluctant to have his city walls torn down and convinced the head of the Meng family not to do so.[30] The Zuozhuan recalls that the governor advised against razing the walls to the ground as he said that it made Cheng vulnerable to the Qi state and cause the destruction of the Meng family.[29] Even though Viscount Meng Yi gave his word not to interfere with an attempt, he went back on his earlier promise to dismantle the walls.[29]

Later in 498 BC, Duke Ding personally went with an army to lay siege to Cheng in an attempt to raze its walls to the ground, but he did not succeed.[31] Thus, Confucius could not achieve the idealistic reforms that he wanted including restoration of the legitimate rule of the duke.[32] He had made powerful enemies within the state, especially with Viscount Ji Huan, due to his successes so far.[33] According to accounts in the Zuozhuan and Shiji, Confucius departed his homeland in 497 BC after his support for the failed attempt of dismantling the fortified city walls of the powerful Ji, Meng, and Shu families.[34] He left the state of Lu without resigning, remaining in self-exile and unable to return as long as Viscount Ji Huan was alive.[33]

ExileThe Shiji stated that the neighboring Qi state was worried that Lu was becoming too powerful while Confucius was involved in the government of the Lu state. According to this account, Qi decided to sabotage Lu’s reforms by sending 100 good horses and 80 beautiful dancing girls to the duke of Lu. The duke indulged himself in pleasure and did not attend to official duties for three days. Confucius was disappointed and resolved to leave Lu and seek better opportunities, yet to leave at once would expose the misbehavior of the duke and therefore bring public humiliation to the ruler Confucius was serving. Confucius therefore waited for the duke to make a lesser mistake. Soon after, the duke neglected to send to Confucius a portion of the sacrificial meat that was his due according to custom, and Confucius seized upon this pretext to leave both his post and the Lu state.

After Confucius’s resignation, he began a long journey or set of journeys around the principality states of north-east and central China including WeySongZhengCaoChuQiChen, and Cai (and a failed attempt to go to Jin). At the courts of these states, he expounded his political beliefs but did not see them implemented.

According to the Zuozhuan, Confucius returned home to his native Lu when he was 68, after he was invited to do so by Ji Kangzi, the chief minister of Lu.[35] The Analects depict him spending his last years teaching 72 or 77 disciples and transmitting the old wisdom via a set of texts called the Five Classics.

During his return, Confucius sometimes acted as an advisor to several government officials in Lu, including Ji Kangzi, on matters including governance and crime.[35]

Burdened by the loss of both his son and his favorite disciples, he died at the age of 71 or 72. He died from natural causes. Confucius was buried in Kong Lin cemetery which lies in the historical part of Qufu in the Shandong Province.[36] The original tomb erected there in memory of Confucius on the bank of the Sishui River had the shape of an axe. In addition, it has a raised brick platform at the front of the memorial for offerings such as sandalwood incense and fruit.

Philosophy

Although Confucianism is often followed in a religious manner by the Chinese, many argue that its values are secular and that it is, therefore, less a religion than a secular morality. Proponents argue, however, that despite the secular nature of Confucianism’s teachings, it is based on a worldview that is religious.[37] Confucianism discusses elements of the afterlife and views concerning Heaven, but it is relatively unconcerned with some spiritual matters often considered essential to religious thought, such as the nature of souls. However, Confucius is said to have believed in astrology, saying: “Heaven sends down its good or evil symbols and wise men act accordingly”.[38]

The Analects of Confucius

In the Analects, Confucius presents himself as a “transmitter who invented nothing”. He puts the greatest emphasis on the importance of study, and it is the Chinese character for study () that opens the text. Far from trying to build a systematic or formalist theory, he wanted his disciples to master and internalize older classics, so that their deep thought and thorough study would allow them to relate the moral problems of the present to past political events (as recorded in the Annals) or the past expressions of commoners’ feelings and noblemen’s reflections (as in the poems of the Book of Odes).

Ethics

One of the deepest teachings of Confucius may have been the superiority of personal exemplification over explicit rules of behavior. His moral teachings emphasized self-cultivation, emulation of moral exemplars, and the attainment of skilled judgment rather than knowledge of rules. Confucian ethics may, therefore, be considered a type of virtue ethics. His teachings rarely rely on reasoned argument, and ethical ideals and methods are conveyed indirectly, through allusioninnuendo, and even tautology. His teachings require examination and context to be understood. A good example is found in this famous anecdote:

廄焚。子退朝,曰:“傷人乎?” 不問馬。

When the stables were burnt down, on returning from court Confucius said, “Was anyone hurt?” He did not ask about the horses.

Analects X.11 (tr. Waley), 10–13 (tr. Legge), or X-17 (tr. Lau)

By not asking about the horses, Confucius demonstrates that the sage values human beings over property; readers are led to reflect on whether their response would follow Confucius’s and to pursue self-improvement if it would not have. Confucius serves not as an all-powerful deity or a universally true set of abstract principles, but rather the ultimate model for others. For these reasons, according to many commentators, Confucius’s teachings may be considered a Chinese example of humanism.

One of his teachings was a variant of the Golden Rule, sometimes called the “Silver Rule” owing to its negative form:

己所不欲,勿施於人。

“What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others.”

子貢問曰:“有一言而可以終身行之者乎?”子曰:“其恕乎!己所不欲、勿施於人。”

Zi Gong [a disciple] asked: “Is there any one word that could guide a person throughout life?”
The Master replied: “How about ‘reciprocity’! Never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself.”

Analects XV.24, tr. David Hinton

Often overlooked in Confucian ethics are the virtues to the self: sincerity and the cultivation of knowledge. Virtuous action towards others begins with virtuous and sincere thought, which begins with knowledge. A virtuous disposition without knowledge is susceptible to corruption, and virtuous action without sincerity is not true righteousness. Cultivating knowledge and sincerity is also important for one’s own sake; the superior person loves learning for the sake of learning and righteousness for the sake of righteousness.

The Confucian theory of ethics as exemplified in lǐ (禮) is based on three important conceptual aspects of life: (a) ceremonies associated with sacrifice to ancestors and deities of various types, (b) social and political institutions, and (c) the etiquette of daily behavior. It was believed by some that lǐ originated from the heavens, but Confucius stressed the development of lǐ through the actions of sage leaders in human history. His discussions of lǐ seem to redefine the term to refer to all actions committed by a person to build the ideal society, rather than those simply conforming with canonical standards of ceremony.

In the early Confucian tradition, lǐ was doing the proper thing at the proper time, balancing between maintaining existing norms to perpetuate an ethical social fabric, and violating them in order to accomplish ethical good. Training in the lǐ of past sages cultivates in people virtues that include ethical judgment about when lǐ must be adapted in light of situational contexts.

In Confucianism, the concept of li is closely related to  (義), which is based upon the idea of reciprocity.  can be translated as righteousness, though it may simply mean what is ethically best to do in a certain context. The term contrasts with action done out of self-interest. While pursuing one’s own self-interest is not necessarily bad, one would be a better, more righteous person if one’s life was based upon following a path designed to enhance the greater good. Thus an outcome of  is doing the right thing for the right reason.

Just as action according to lǐ should be adapted to conform to the aspiration of adhering to , so  is linked to the core value of rén (仁).Rén consists of five basic virtues: seriousness, generosity, sincerity, diligence and kindness.[39] Rén is the virtue of perfectly fulfilling one’s responsibilities toward others, most often translated as “benevolence” or “humaneness”; translator Arthur Waley calls it “Goodness” (with a capital G), and other translations that have been put forth include “authoritativeness” and “selflessness.” Confucius’s moral system was based upon empathy and understanding others, rather than divinely ordained rules. To develop one’s spontaneous responses of rén so that these could guide action intuitively was even better than living by the rules of . Confucius asserts that virtue is a mean between extremes. For example, the properly generous person gives the right amount—not too much and not too little.[39]

Politics

Confucius’s political thought is based upon his ethical thought. He argued that the best government is one that rules through “rites” (lǐ) and people’s natural morality, and not by using bribery and coercion. He explained that this is one of the most important analects: “If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame. If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of the shame, and moreover will become good.” (Translated by James Legge) in the Great Learning (大學). This “sense of shame” is an internalisation of duty, where the punishment precedes the evil action, instead of following it in the form of laws as in Legalism.

Confucius looked nostalgically upon earlier days, and urged the Chinese, particularly those with political power, to model themselves on earlier examples. In times of division, chaos, and endless wars between feudal states, he wanted to restore the Mandate of Heaven (天命) that could unify the “world” (天下, “all under Heaven”) and bestow peace and prosperity on the people. Because his vision of personal and social perfections was framed as a revival of the ordered society of earlier times, Confucius is often considered a great proponent of conservatism, but a closer look at what he proposes often shows that he used (and perhaps twisted) past institutions and rites to push a new political agenda of his own: a revival of a unified royal state, whose rulers would succeed to power on the basis of their moral merits instead of lineage. These would be rulers devoted to their people, striving for personal and social perfection, and such a ruler would spread his own virtues to the people instead of imposing proper behavior with laws and rules.

Confucius did not believe in the concept of “democracy“, which is itself an Athenian concept unknown in ancient China, but could be interpreted by Confucius’s principles recommending against individuals electing their own political leaders to govern them, or that anyone is capable of self-government. He expressed fears that the masses lacked the intellect to make decisions for themselves, and that, in his view, since not everyone is created equal, not everyone has a right of self-government.[40]

While he supported the idea of government ruling by a virtuous king, his ideas contained a number of elements to limit the power of rulers. He argued for representing truth in language, and honesty was of paramount importance. Even in facial expression, truth must always be represented. Confucius believed that if a ruler is to lead correctly, by action, that orders would be unnecessary in that others will follow the proper actions of their ruler. In discussing the relationship between a king and his subject (or a father and his son), he underlined the need to give due respect to superiors. This demanded that the subordinates must advise their superiors if the superiors are considered to be taking a course of action that is wrong. Confucius believed in ruling by example, if you lead correctly, orders by force or punishment are not necessary.[41]

Legacy

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Confucius’s teachings were later turned into an elaborate set of rules and practices by his numerous disciples and followers, who organized his teachings into the Analects.[42][43] Confucius’s disciples and his only grandson, Zisi, continued his philosophical school after his death.[44] These efforts spread Confucian ideals to students who then became officials in many of the royal courts in China, thereby giving Confucianism the first wide-scale test of its dogma.

Two of Confucius’s most famous later followers emphasized radically different aspects of his teachings. In the centuries after his death, Mencius (孟子) and Xun Zi (荀子) both composed important teachings elaborating in different ways on the fundamental ideas associated with Confucius. Mencius (4th century BC) articulated the innate goodness in human beings as a source of the ethical intuitions that guide people towards rén, and lǐ, while Xun Zi (3rd century BC) underscored the realistic and materialistic aspects of Confucian thought, stressing that morality was inculcated in society through tradition and in individuals through training. In time, their writings, together with the Analects and other core texts came to constitute the philosophical corpus of Confucianism.

This realignment in Confucian thought was parallel to the development of Legalism, which saw filial piety as self-interest and not a useful tool for a ruler to create an effective state. A disagreement between these two political philosophies came to a head in 223 BC when the Qin state conquered all of China. Li Si, Prime Minister of the Qin dynasty, convinced Qin Shi Huang to abandon the Confucians’ recommendation of awarding fiefs akin to the Zhou Dynasty before them which he saw as being against to the Legalist idea of centralizing the state around the ruler. When the Confucian advisers pressed their point, Li Si had many Confucian scholars killed and their books burned—considered a huge blow to the philosophy and Chinese scholarship.

Under the succeeding Han and Tang dynasties, Confucian ideas gained even more widespread prominence. Under Wudi, the works of Confucius were made the official imperial philosophy and required reading for civil service examinations in 140 BC which was continued nearly unbroken until the end of the 19th century. As Mohism lost support by the time of the Han, the main philosophical contenders were Legalism, which Confucian thought somewhat absorbed, the teachings of Laozi, whose focus on more spiritual ideas kept it from direct conflict with Confucianism, and the new Buddhist religion, which gained acceptance during the Southern and Northern Dynasties era. Both Confucian ideas and Confucian-trained officials were relied upon in the Ming Dynasty and even the Yuan Dynasty, although Kublai Khan distrusted handing over provincial control to them.

During the Song dynasty, the scholar Zhu Xi (AD 1130–1200) added ideas from Daoism and Buddhism into Confucianism. In his life, Zhu Xi was largely ignored, but not long after his death, his ideas became the new orthodox view of what Confucian texts actually meant. Modern historians view Zhu Xi as having created something rather different and call his way of thinking Neo-Confucianism. Neo-Confucianism held sway in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam until the 19th century.

Confucius, Philosopher of the Chinese, published by Jesuit missionaries at Paris in 1687.

The works of Confucius were first translated into European languages by Jesuit missionaries in the 16th century during the late Ming dynasty. The first known effort was by Michele Ruggieri, who returned to Italy in 1588 and carried on his translations while residing in SalernoMatteo Ricci started to report on the thoughts of Confucius, and a team of Jesuits—Prospero IntorcettaPhilippe Couplet, and two others—published a translation of several Confucian works and an overview of Chinese history in Paris in 1687.[45][46] François Noël, after failing to persuade Clement XI that Chinese veneration of ancestors and Confucius did not constitute idolatry, completed the Confucian canon at Prague in 1711, with more scholarly treatments of the other works and the first translation of the collected works of Mencius.[47] It is thought that such works had considerable importance on European thinkers of the period, particularly among the Deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration of the system of morality of Confucius into Western civilization.[46][48]

In the modern era Confucian movements, such as New Confucianism, still exist, but during the Cultural Revolution, Confucianism was frequently attacked by leading figures in the Communist Party of China. This was partially a continuation of the condemnations of Confucianism by intellectuals and activists in the early 20th century as a cause of the ethnocentric close-mindedness and refusal of the Qing Dynasty to modernize that led to the tragedies that befell China in the 19th century.

Confucius’s works are studied by scholars in many other Asian countries, particularly those in the Chinese cultural sphere, such as Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Many of those countries still hold the traditional memorial ceremony every year.

The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community believes Confucius was a Divine Prophet of God, as were Lao-Tzu and other eminent Chinese personages.[49]

In modern times, Asteroid 7853, “Confucius”, was named after the Chinese thinker.[50]

Disciples

Zengzi (right) kneeling before Confucius (center), as depicted in a painting from the Illustrations of the Classic of Filial PietySong dynasty

Main article: Disciples of Confucius

Confucius began teaching after he turned 30, and taught more than 3,000 students in his life, about 70 of whom were considered outstanding. His disciples and the early Confucian community they formed became the most influential intellectual force in the Warring States period.[51] The Han dynasty historian Sima Qian dedicated a chapter in his Records of the Grand Historian to the biographies of Confucius’s disciples, accounting for the influence they exerted in their time and afterward. Sima Qian recorded the names of 77 disciples in his collective biography, while Kongzi Jiayu, another early source, records 76, not completely overlapping. The two sources together yield the names of 96 disciples.[52] 22 of them are mentioned in the Analects, while the Mencius records 24.[53]

Confucius did not charge any tuition, and only requested a symbolic gift of a bundle of dried meat from any prospective student. According to his disciple Zigong, his master treated students like doctors treated patients and did not turn anybody away.[52] Most of them came from Lu, Confucius’s home state, with 43 recorded, but he accepted students from all over China, with six from the state of Wey (such as Zigong), three from Qin, two each from Chen and Qi, and one each from CaiChu, and Song.[52] Confucius considered his students’ personal background irrelevant, and accepted noblemen, commoners, and even former criminals such as Yan Zhuoju and Gongye Chang.[54] His disciples from richer families would pay a sum commensurate with their wealth which was considered a ritual donation.[52]

Confucius’s favorite disciple was Yan Hui, most probably one of the most impoverished of them all.[53] Sima Niu, in contrast to Yan Hui, was from a hereditary noble family hailing from the Song state.[53] Under Confucius’s teachings, the disciples became well-learned in the principles and methods of government.[55] He often engaged in discussion and debate with his students and gave high importance to their studies in history, poetry, and ritual.[55] Confucius advocated loyalty to principle rather than to individual acumen, in which reform was to be achieved by persuasion rather than violence.[55] Even though Confucius denounced them for their practices, the aristocracy was likely attracted to the idea of having trustworthy officials who were studied in morals as the circumstances of the time made it desirable.[55] In fact, the disciple Zilu even died defending his ruler in Wey.[55]

Yang Hu, who was a subordinate of the Ji family, had dominated the Lu government from 505 to 502 and even attempted a coup, which narrowly failed.[55] As a likely consequence, it was after that that the first disciples of Confucius were appointed to government positions.[55] A few of Confucius’s disciples went on to attain official positions of some importance, some of which were arranged by Confucius.[56] By the time Confucius was 50 years old, the Ji family had consolidated their power in the Lu state over the ruling ducal house.[57] Even though the Ji family had practices with which Confucius disagreed and disapproved, they nonetheless gave Confucius’s disciples many opportunities for employment.[57] Confucius continued to remind his disciples to stay true to their principles and renounced those who did not, all the while being openly critical of the Ji family.[58]

Visual portraits

No contemporary painting or sculpture of Confucius survives, and it was only during the Han Dynasty that he was portrayed visually. Carvings often depict his legendary meeting with Laozi. Since that time there have been many portraits of Confucius as the ideal philosopher. The oldest known portrait of Confucius has been unearthed in the tomb of the Han dynasty ruler Marquis of Haihun (died 59 BC). The picture was painted on the wooden frame to a polished bronze mirror.[59]

In former times, it was customary to have a portrait in Confucius Temples; however, during the reign of Hongwu Emperor (Taizu) of the Ming dynasty, it was decided that the only proper portrait of Confucius should be in the temple in his home town, Qufu in Shandong. In other temples, Confucius is represented by a memorial tablet. In 2006, the China Confucius Foundation commissioned a standard portrait of Confucius based on the Tang dynasty portrait by Wu Daozi.

The South Wall Frieze in the courtroom of the Supreme Court of the United States depicts Confucius as a teacher of harmony, learning, and virtue.[60]

Fictional portrayals

There have been two film adaptations of Confucius’ life: Confucius (1940) starring Tang Huaiqiu, and Confucius (2010) starring Chow Yun-fat.

In music, Tori Amos imagines Confucius as working on a crossword puzzle in her 1992 song “Happy Phantom.”

Memorials

First entrance gate of the Temple of Confucius in Zhenhai

Soon after Confucius’s death, Qufu, his home town, became a place of devotion and remembrance. The Han dynasty Records of the Grand Historian records that it had already become a place of pilgrimage for ministers. It is still a major destination for cultural tourism, and many people visit his grave and the surrounding temples. In Sinic cultures, there are many temples where representations of the BuddhaLaozi, and Confucius are found together. There are also many temples dedicated to him, which have been used for Confucian ceremonies.

Followers of Confucianism have a tradition of holding spectacular memorial ceremonies of Confucius (祭孔) every year, using ceremonies that supposedly derived from Zhou Li (周禮) as recorded by Confucius, on the date of Confucius’s birth. In the 20th century, this tradition was interrupted for several decades in mainland China, where the official stance of the Communist Party and the State was that Confucius and Confucianism represented reactionary feudalist beliefs which held that the subservience of the people to the aristocracy is a part of the natural order. All such ceremonies and rites were therefore banned. Only after the 1990s did the ceremony resume. As it is now considered a veneration of Chinese history and tradition, even Communist Party members may be found in attendance.

In Taiwan, where the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) strongly promoted Confucian beliefs in ethics and behavior, the tradition of the memorial ceremony of Confucius (祭孔) is supported by the government and has continued without interruption. While not a national holiday, it does appear on all printed calendars, much as Father’s Day or Christmas Day do in the Western world.

In South Korea, a grand-scale memorial ceremony called Seokjeon Daeje is held twice a year on Confucius’s birthday and the anniversary of his death, at Confucian academies across the country and Sungkyunkwan in Seoul.

Descendants

See also: Family tree of Confucius in the main line of descent

Confucius’s descendants were repeatedly identified and honored by successive imperial governments with titles of nobility and official posts. They were honored with the rank of a marquis 35 times since Gaozu of the Han dynasty, and they were promoted to the rank of duke 42 times from the Tang dynasty to the Qing dynastyEmperor Xuanzong of Tang first bestowed the title of “Duke Wenxuan” on Kong Suizhi of the 35th generation. In 1055, Emperor Renzong of Song first bestowed the title of “Duke Yansheng” on Kong Zongyuan of the 46th generation.

During the Southern Song dynasty, the Duke Yansheng Kong Duanyou fled south with the Song Emperor to Quzhou in Zhejiang, while the newly established Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in the north appointed Kong Duanyou’s brother Kong Duancao who remained in Qufu as Duke Yansheng.[61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70] From that time up until the Yuan dynasty, there were two Duke Yanshengs, one in the north in Qufu and the other in the south at Quzhou. An invitation to come back to Qufu was extended to the southern Duke Yansheng Kong Zhu by the Yuan-dynasty Emperor Kublai Khan. The title was taken away from the southern branch after Kong Zhu rejected the invitation,[71] so the northern branch of the family kept the title of Duke Yansheng. The southern branch remained in Quzhou where they live to this day. Confucius’s descendants in Quzhou alone number 30,000.[72][73] The Hanlin Academy rank of Wujing boshi 五經博士 was awarded to the southern branch at Quzhou by a Ming Emperor while the northern branch at Qufu held the title Duke Yansheng.[74][75] The leader of the southern branch is 孔祥楷 Kong Xiangkai.[76]

In 1351, during the reign of Emperor Toghon Temür of the Yuan dynasty, 93rd-generation descendant Kong Huan (孔浣)’s 2nd son Kong Shao (孔昭) moved from China to Korea during the Goryeo Dynasty, and was received courteously by Princess Noguk (the Mongolian-born wife of the future king Gongmin). After being naturalized as a Korean citizen, he changed the hanja of his name from “昭” to “紹” (both pronounced so in Korean),[77] married a Korean woman and bore a son (Gong Yeo (Korean: 공여; Hanja: 孔帤), 1329–1397), therefore establishing the Changwon Gong clan (Korean: 창원 공씨; Hanja: 昌原 孔氏), whose ancestral seat was located in ChangwonSouth Gyeongsang Province. The clan then received an aristocratic rank during the succeeding Joseon Dynasty.[78][79][80][81][82] In 1794, during the reign of King Jeongjo, the clan then changed its name to Gokbu Gong clan (Korean: 곡부 공씨; Hanja: 曲阜 孔氏) in honor of Confucius’s birthplace Qufu (Korean: 곡부; Hanja: 曲阜; RRGokbu).[83]
Famous descendants include actors such as Gong Yoo (real name Gong Ji-cheol (공지철)) & Gong Hyo-jin (공효진); and artists such as male idol group B1A4 member Gongchan (real name Gong Chan-sik (공찬식)), singer-songwriter Minzy (real name Gong Min-ji (공민지)), as well as her great-aunt traditional folk dancer Gong Ok-jin (공옥진).

Despite repeated dynastic change in China, the title of Duke Yansheng was bestowed upon successive generations of descendants until it was abolished by the Nationalist Government in 1935. The last holder of the title, Kung Te-cheng of the 77th generation, was appointed Sacrificial Official to Confucius. Kung Te-cheng died in October 2008, and his son, Kung Wei-yi, the 78th lineal descendant, had died in 1989. Kung Te-cheng’s grandson, Kung Tsui-chang, the 79th lineal descendant, was born in 1975; his great-grandson, Kung Yu-jen, the 80th lineal descendant, was born in Taipei on January 1, 2006. Te-cheng’s sister, Kong Demao, lives in mainland China and has written a book about her experiences growing up at the family estate in Qufu. Another sister, Kong Deqi, died as a young woman.[84] Many descendants of Confucius still live in Qufu today.

A descendant of Confucius, H. H. Kung was the Premier of the Republic of China. One of his sons, Kong Lingjie 孔令傑 married Debra Paget[85] who gave birth to Gregory Kung (孔德基).

Confucius’s family, the Kongs, have the longest recorded extant pedigree in the world today. The father-to-son family tree, now in its 83rd generation,[86] has been recorded since the death of Confucius. According to the Confucius Genealogy Compilation Committee (CGCC), he has two million known and registered descendants, and there are an estimated three million in all.[87] Of these, several tens of thousands live outside of China.[87] In the 14th century, a Kong descendant went to Korea, where an estimated 34,000 descendants of Confucius live today.[87] One of the main lineages fled from the Kong ancestral home in Qufu during the Chinese Civil War in the 1940s and eventually settled in Taiwan.[84] There are also branches of the Kong family who have converted to Islam after marrying Muslim women, in Dachuan in Gansu province in the 1800s,[88] and in 1715 in Xuanwei in Yunnan province.[89] Many of the Muslim Confucius descendants are descended from the marriage of Ma Jiaga (马甲尕), a Muslim woman, and Kong Yanrong (孔彦嵘), 59th generation descendant of Confucius in the year 1480 and are found among the Hui and Dongxiang peoples.[90][91][92][93] The new genealogy includes the Muslims.[94] Kong Dejun (孔德軍) is a prominent Islamic scholar and Arabist from Qinghai province and a 77th generation descendant of Confucius.

Because of the huge interest in the Confucius family tree, there was a project in China to test the DNA of known family members of the collateral branches in mainland China.[95] Among other things, this would allow scientists to identify a common Y chromosome in male descendants of Confucius. If the descent were truly unbroken, father-to-son, since Confucius’s lifetime, the males in the family would all have the same Y chromosome as their direct male ancestor, with slight mutations due to the passage of time.[96] The aim of the genetic test was the help members of collateral branches in China who lost their genealogical records to prove their descent. However, in 2009, many of the collateral branches decided not to agree to DNA testing.[97] Bryan Sykes, professor of genetics at Oxford University, understands this decision: “The Confucius family tree has an enormous cultural significance,” he said. “It’s not just a scientific question.”[97] The DNA testing was originally proposed to add new members, many of whose family record books were lost during 20th-century upheavals, to the Confucian family tree.[98] The main branch of the family which fled to Taiwan was never involved in the proposed DNA test at all.

In 2013 a DNA test performed on multiple different families who claimed descent from Confucius found that they shared the same Y chromosome as reported by Fudan University.[99]

The fifth and most recent edition of the Confucius genealogy was printed by the CGCC.[100][101] It was unveiled in a ceremony at Qufu on September 24, 2009.[100][101] Women are now included for the first time.[102]

References

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Bibliography

Further reading

External links

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