INTRODUCING BOOKS WITHOUT BORDERS —POLITICAL & CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
GOVERNANCE: AN INSIDERS REFLECTIONS ON THE NIGERIAN POLITY: Preface by Prof. Tunde Adeniran, OFR Nigeria’s former Minister of Education & Ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany
AFRICA: THE GAME CHANGERS & DYNAMICS OF POWER: Foreword: Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, GCFR, Former President, Federal Republic of Nigeria
Preface by: Prof. Ibrahim Gambari, CFR – Former United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs & Special Adviser on Africa
TECHNIQUES OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT IN GOVERNANCE — Foreword by: Senator David A.B. Mark, GCON — Endorsement By Dr. Yemi Farounbi, OON
USEFUL GUIDES OF PORTS/BORDER POSTS & IMMIGRATION MATTERS — Foreword By: Ambassador Joe C. Keshi, OON
NIGERIA’S LEADING LIGHTS OF THE GOSPEL …… Revolutionaries in Worldwide Christianity
Foreword By: Gen. (Dr) Yakubu Gowon
Preface By: Retd. Archbishop Lawrence Ayo Ladigbolu
ALL Authored By FEMI ADELEGAN
Published by: Terrific Investments & Consulting, Abuja, FCT, Nigeria
© Femi Adelegan
All rights reserved. No part of these publications may be reproduced, translated into any language or computer language, in any form or by any means, or electronic, without the consent in writing of the publisher.
CAVEAT EMPTOR! Digitization and reproduction of these book publications by anybody or organization including higher institutions, without the express permission of the AUTHOR/PUBLISHERS is FORBIDDEN.
GOVERNANCE: AN INSIDER’S REFLECTIONS ON THE NIGERIAN POLITY’
Author: Femi Adelegan & Published in Nigeria by: Terrific Investment & Consulting
FOREWORD: By H.E. Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, GCFR; former President, Federal Republic of Nigeria. :In recent years, African nations have devoted particular attention to the very pertinent issues of political stability, human security, poverty, development and freedom. Also given attention is the right of people to freely choose their own socio-economic and political systems that constitute the bedrock of peace and development. At the dawn of the millennium, global attention focused intensely on globalization as a framework for the formulation of appropriate strategies for a desirable future for the whole world that is increasingly facing the problem of inequalities in an increasingly interdependent world.
Africa seems to have boxed itself into an uncomfortable state by acts of commission and omission on the part of the continent’s leaders. Poor management of the continent’s vast human and material resources over the years has been identified as one of its greatest banes. One factor that has often worked against development is what is described as “the leadership factor,” which this book has treated fairly exhaustively. Regrettably, Africa has been exploited, and continues to be exploited by our so-called development partners. A rather sad phenomenon is that Africans, particularly the political leaders and elites, share in the blame of under-development of the continent on account of poor governance culture, lack of clear vision, misplaced priorities, and the mismanagement of Africa’s huge resources – (both human and material) — that are our greatest endowments.
AFRICA: THE GAME CHANGERS & DYNAMICS OF POWER, authored by Femi Adelegan, states pointedly that it has dawned on Africa’s leaders that no foreign power could be more committed and dedicated to the development of Africa than Africans. It is for this reason that Africa’s leaders, having realized the importance of the task at hand, are now fairly united in the objective of advancing the interests of their nations, particularly with regard to the need to grow their economies. Commendably, Africa’s leaders have opened a new vista in the area of building massive infrastructure, which is a major pre-requisite for sustainable economic growth and development.
One of the most encouraging developments being witnessed is increased focus on socio-economic development by the leadership, which is becoming more aware of the need to pull the continent out of a pitiable depth and morass. Various intervention schemes put in place by African nations, individually and collectively through the African Union, AU, as well as mechanisms adopted to promote good governance since the inception of the AU have also aided development. Additionally, attempts to diversify the economy through various reforms, and increase global awareness about the huge opportunities in Africa are boosting hopes of startling impressive performances, hence the slogan ‘Africa rising’.
However, pervasive corruption, sometimes aided by foreign elements doing business with us, is another obstacle to the realization of the key objectives of African nations. Terrorism and conflicts have become pronounced and have assumed dangerous dimensions. Under-development has also been the outcome of largely incoherent implementation of policies, and institutional reforms, for the enforcement of rules and regulations introduced for the economic and political transformation of our continent.
But all hope is not lost. Of notable importance is the increasing political awareness of Africans that are becoming very much interested in accountability, transparency and good governance. Indeed, Africans are now determined, more than ever before, to take their fate in their own hands, in order to advance socio-economic and political development, which is the most potent way of making progress in the continent.
I commend Femi Adelegan for his efforts at contributing his quota to societal development, and for putting his time to profitable use for the benefit of Africans in particular through this publication. I believe that the author’s past exposures, as a participant-observer in five different administrations in Osun State of Nigeria, have all proven to be invaluable experiences, which Femi has continued to share with the world through his publications on issues pertaining to the intricate art of governance.
I am, indeed, delighted to recommend this book to all who wish to know more about Africa’s problems and suggested solutions, as well as the huge opportunities available on the continent.
CHIEF OLUSEGUN OBASANJO, GCFR; Former President, Federal Republic of Nigeria
PREFACE By: Prof. Ibrahim Agboola Gambari, CFR;Former United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs & Special Adviser on Africa, & Nigeria’s former Minister of External Affairs: Africa is widely regarded as the next frontier of the global economy with emerging success stories, in spite of the huge challenges currently confronting the continent. Today, the continent stands at a major crossroads, with Africa parading a paradox of opulence, growth and pervasive poverty. Generally, it is believed that Africa’s future may very well depend on the ability of leaders, elites and the general populace to evolve workable systems that would guarantee sustainable and viable cultures of governance and democracy. This is the summary of this book titled: “AFRICA: The Game Changers and Dynamics of Power” authored by Femi Adelegan, a Nigerian bureaucrat, writer, author, and publicist, who has in this compilation taken a critical look at the constraints and challenges on one hand, and durable solutions of moving African nations higher, on the global scale of socio-economic and political advancements on the other side.
An overview of Femi Adelegan’s book indicates that Africa really has no real reason to be poor, had there been conscientious efforts, dedication, and commitment on the part of Africans to build the continent as progressive societies and to implement several initiatives capable of turning the situation around and confronting serious challenges attributable to a poor governance culture. The author has demonstrated, in this book, his acquisition of a rich blend of knowledge and maturity, having served in various positions in different governments in Nigeria. The ease with which Femi has tackled various issues raised in this compilation has also been aided by his very broad horizon and exposure during his public service outing spanning over three decades.
From the opening chapter, the author discusses the influence of “Power”, within the context of politics, physical and even spiritual, and goes further to describe power as a “potent force” that drives the society. In Chapters Two and Three, he discusses the instruments of power and how to balance power in an increasingly interdependent world; which, in his view, “constructing structures and policies that could serve as effective checks and balances, while also promoting factors that could minimize to the barest minimum, problems associated with inequalities, injustice and abuse of power.” Chapters Four and Five treat the vexed issues of the exploitation of Africa, Pan-Africanism and different ideologies embraced by the continent’s first generation of post-independence political leaders, as well as their effects on the political development of the continent.
For Africa, the road to freedom and unity has been rather long and tortuous as it has been negatively impacted by slavery and slave trade, and several destructive, senseless and avoidable wars and conflicts, compounded by scourges of poverty and disease. These regrettable developments resonate in the next two chapters that treat exhaustively the sub-themes: “The Problems of Africa and Military Intervention” and “Armed Conflicts in Africa”. He alludes to my statement at a United Nations Forum that “If you address the root causes of conflict, and if you accept that conflict and wars retard development – in no continent is this more true than in Africa, because one of the main reasons Africa is behind the rest of the world is precisely because it has the largest number of conflicts. People are not going to invest in countries of conflict, and without investment, both domestic and foreign, as they are not going to have production; they are not going to have employment, and it’s a vicious circle.”
Femi Adelegan also identifies one key factor that would very much determine the future of Africa, which is the trend of violent crimes and armed conflicts on the continent; and are exacerbated by the proliferation of small arms and light weapons in the region. Chapters eight, nine, ten and eleven deal basically with the issue of development, globalization and the leadership question. It is obvious that Africa’s leadership must be prepared to adjust and adapt in order to effect the necessary structural adjustments in the global economic and political arena, muster all the resources available, and strategize for the evolution of a more prosperous polity. Femi Adelegan invites attention to President Barack Obama’s public speech during his year 2009 visit to Ghana, in which he asserted that “Africa’s future is up to Africans’, and that “Development depends on good governance; and that is the ingredient that has been missing for too long in Africa. “And that is the responsibility that can be met in Africa only by Africans.”
The author notes, and correctly too, that to develop on a sustainable basis and maximally, Africans must be mobilized in the pursuit of good governance, and the proper utilization of the continent’s several human and natural resources, particularly agriculture. He notes that the continent has, in the last one decade experienced exponential economic growth that gives hope for its transformation, turning the focus of the world to the potentials of the 54 nations that comprise Africa. As a continent with a collective GDP of about US$2 trillion, Africa holds about 14 percent of the world’s population, and more than 60 percent of uncultivated arable land. Regrettably, less than 10 percent of arable land in Africa is being utilized for farming, thus leaving huge cultivable arable lands on the vast continent uncultivated.
Additionally, the imperative of good governance and the evolution of a viable political culture in Africa are treated perceptively in this publication. The author highlights such important requirements as the need to re-awaken political leaders on the importance of good governance to societal development, encourage efforts towards the re-evaluation and proper utilization of the economic fortunes of Africa and the Black race, and also stimulate actions towards the reduction of the digital divide that impacts the black race through the proper implementation of the globalization agenda. It is to be noted, however, as I have pointed out in one of my papers, that the perpetrators of vices such as poor governance, corruption, impunity, and lack of transparency would not easily give up the privileges accruing to their practices.
From this point of view, Femi Adelegan suggests that what needs to be done, therefore, is for civil societies and the people as a whole to demand good governance; and work towards peaceful changes and the termination of politics of exclusion that often leads to acute crises and conflicts. The author also highlights the negative effects of the seeming reluctance of some Western nations to free Africa completely from their grips through continued subtle manipulation of the political and economic development of Africa, even after granting these countries independence. Accordingly, the author, while identifying several advanced nations as accomplices in the illegal siphoning of Africa’s resources, treats extensively the problem of pervasive corruption, which is identified as a major cause of the stunted growth recorded on the African continent.
In the closing Chapter titled: “The Game Changers,” the author goes ahead to examine the potentials and future of Africa. Here, the author identifies leadership as the key to progress and asserts that Africa’s future is inextricably linked and woven into the vision and mission of its political leaders, who are entrusted with the responsibility of lifting the continent out of its current predicament. He also points out that developing Africa is the responsibility of both the leaders and the governed. The author argues that most of the continent’s problems could be traced to elites and quality and pattern of leadership that, in most cases has been uninspiring and short on provision of best global governance practices, as the government and the governed jointly owe it a great responsibility to pull the continent along the path of durable growth and sustainable development.
The major game changers, according to him are “Good governance, observance of the rule of law, justice, true democratic culture and commitment to the pursuit of excellence”. Furthermore, he adds, Africa must ensure smooth democratic transitions, the absence of which forms part of the greatest problems confronting the growth of civil democratic governance on the continent. According to the author, “The lust for political power and the refusal of some elected political office holders and heads of state to vacate office after the expiration of their tenures have resulted into serious crises that have rocked the stability of African nations. Furthermore, Femi argues that “Some of the obstacles to development in the developing world could be traced to the inability of the nations to introduce legal and institutional reforms capable of advancing socio-economic and political development”.
In the book, the author treats issues that could heighten cooperation between developing and developed nations, and also make them embrace the needed changes that must be constructed into the process of governance and international relations; and particularly, recommends improvements in the political and bureaucratic systems of African nations. Additionally, this book draws the attention of African leaders, elites and the general citizenry, to the need to be more involved in the process of participatory democracy and governance in order to record greater development. Happily, African leaders are currently focusing greater attention on salient factors that could push the economy of Africa forward.
Without any doubt, Femi Adelegan has enriched this book with rich nuggets of practical and theoretical experiences; utilizing the wide experiences acquired from his long walk in the corridors of power in Nigeria for over two decades and as a publicist, bureaucrat, writer and author.
It is, therefore, a great honour to be requested to write the Preface to this publication, and I wish to recommend this book as essential reading for students and practitioners of politics, international relations, and history; as well as politicians and global power players in this era of globalization.
Prof. Ibrahim Gambari, CFR; Former United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs and Nigeria’s former Minister of Foreign Affairs.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GOVERNANCE: An Insider’s Reflections on the Nigerian Polity by Femi Adelegan
A Book that challenges common definitions of governance
Author Femi Adelegan brings a lifetime of experience in Nigeria’s government to topic
ABUJA, Nigeria – Femi Adelegan’s nonfiction book “Governance: An Insider’s Reflections highlights the fact that governments and their major actors – public officers – are in office to carry out the wishes of the greater majority of the populace. “Governance is a sort of sacrosanct social contract between the government and the governed,” Adelegan writes.“There are obligations to be fulfilled by both parties. Not many people know that governance is a very complex process, which quite naturally tasks the ingenuity of leaders. -Author
An excerpt from “Governance: An Insider’s Reflections on the Nigerian Polity”:
‘’One of the lessons derivable from the author’s effort, however, is that the world needs to care more about democracy, raise fundamental questions about it, re-assess performances from time to time and strive to leave a worthy legacy. The book is being published at a time the polity is characterized by serious challenges of development, the misery of many as the polity continues to be fettered by the diminishing patriotism, declining productivity, selfishness and greed. The corrosive forces of primitive patronage, compulsive compromise and complex corruption, especially in the developing world are being compounded by the gross deficit in internal party democracy to pose serious challenges to the consolidation of democracy and good governance’’. – Prof. Tunde Adeniran, Political Scientist, Nigeria’s former Minister of Education & Ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany.
This book on Governance will help in demystifying governance and the occupants of political offices” – Liyel Imoke – former governor, Cross River State, Nigeria
The job of harnessing human and material resources is not all glamour and goes beyond what people imagine or see on the surface. Femi Adelegan should be commended for sharing his perspectives with the public. He has, in this publication, been able to unveil the shroud of secrecy surrounding what the government does. – Prince Olagunsoye Oyinlola – Former Governor, Osun State, Nigeria
About the Author: Femi Adelegan is a time-tested bureaucrat and information manager whose technocratic instincts have kept him within the precincts of power for several years. For most of the 1990s through the turn of the millennium, Adelegan, a journalist, publicist, administrator and writer, walked around the corridors of power as an image manager and spokesman to four consecutive governors of Osun State in Nigeria. He also served as Chief Private Secretary/Special Adviser on Policies, Programmes & Plans Implementation Monitoring to the governor of Osun State, Nigeria from 2003-2010
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BOOK TITLE: GOVERNANCE: AN INSIDER’S REFLECTIONS ON THE NIGERIAN POLITY —PREFACE By Prof. Tunde Adeniran, OFR
Participant-observers are among the most challenged of researchers, social analysts and commentators. They readily stand the risk of having their heads in the clouds, becoming servants of power chroniclers or even victims of cognitive dissonance. They could also turn out to be conscientious commentators, creative counselors and intellectual advocates of change. This publication has come out as a reputation enhancing treatise by a writer and bureaucratic player.
GOVERNANCE by Femi Adelegan, a time-tested bureaucrat and information manager whose technocratic instincts have kept within the precincts of power for several years is a comprehensive review of some fundamental issues in the governance of Nigeria from the perspective of an insider. His form and style do not permit of complete detachment and neither do they allow for a sentimental and racy tour of the issues and the pivotally important periods covered. The author’s versatility and fine analytical mind find expression here and come out quite incisive and largely realistic in his assessment of the Nigerian situation and experience.
Right from the beginning, it is duly acknowledged by the author that the major objective of the “serious mental exercise” which produced this book was to “lift the human spirit to a new pedestal of excellence and performance in the collective effort to construct a new Nigeria.” In his view, based on “the demands of a fluid and dynamic world in which we live these days of globalization, there is an evident and compelling need to identify the banners of the Nigerian society and move the country forward along the envisaged path of progress”. And so, he moves on to highlight the opportunities and obstacles to stability and development in most of the chapters.
Without bothering much about any rigid structure, the author allows his views and concerns to flow through the wide-ranging themes and sub-themes of the various chapters. After the introductory chapter which takes us through a survey of the meaning and essence of governance, forms of government and the necessity for new programmes and agencies to propel development, chapters two to five settle for some empirical assessment. They cover a history of nationalism, it origins in Nigeria, the key actors and champions of Nigeria’s independence movements, the latter day advocators of individual and collective rights, the structure of Nigeria, its shifting arrangements resulting from various constitutions, and the special essence of the “Fundamental Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy” contained in chapter II of the 1999 constitution regarding the obligations of government and the governed. The political class and the nature of political participation dominate his overview of democratic governance in Nigeria while the author’s assessment of the military in government is based on its origins, structure, rationale, lessons and effects.
Chapters six, seven and eight address issues relating to the economy and national development, the Nigerian public service and what the author considers to be the pitfalls and landmines in the polity and political process. Within the economic structure, substructure and superstructure, the system of funds allocation, intervention packages and strategies such as the vision 2010 and the National Economic and Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS) as well as late President Umaru Yar’Adua’s 7-point agenda are the key issues. And who is the civil servant? This category of operators within the Nigerian system is located along with the evolution, rules, regulations, the inhibition and dysfunctional forces which modulate the public service. The pitfalls and landmines identified include corruption in all forms, ethnicity, youth restiveness, population census, disregard for the rule of law and the electoral process for which he advocates provision for independent candidacy.
It is from chapter nine that the author begins to address recurring problems of governance more specifically. For good governance he advocates integrated development and presents some tips for states and the Local Government Areas-using an Osun state proposal. He stresses the essence of reforms and draws attention to the anomaly in our bureaucratic set up which I had some years back identified as the dilemma of “presidential parliamentarism”. As a very good communicator, the author’s handling of “Governance and Public Communication” and “The Art of Information Management and Government” is basically recommendatory. The importance of regulation, information technology, communication and good reporting is stressed as he takes us through the contributions of some leading lights in the field, anchoring his viewpoint on fairness doctrine and the need to propagate ideals. This is just as fascinating as “The Art of information Management in Government” in which the author’s emphasis is on the need for experience and how to manage “The boss” and weather the storm of intrigues in the process.
We have in chapter twelve a refreshing perspective on the federalism debate, true federalism as the way forward or tool for national development. This is followed by a useful compilation as “Reflections on the Mission, Vision and Policy Statements of Successive Heads of Nigerian Government since Independence”. A look into Nigeria within the international community follows, through the instrumentality of peace keeping operations like ECOMOG and such organs as the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD). Having raised so many issues, some as old as Nigeria and others as new as each emerging dispensation, the author’s rounding up with the chapter “The Old Versus the New” provides an opportunity to buttress the essence of issue-based politics and merit in the suffocating influence of political parties on governments and the failure of the intelligentsia.
The author’s patriotism shines in this book. Some of the unsparing assessments mitigate selective escapism to make the treatment of the core issues even-handed. One of the lessons derivable from the author’s effort, however, is that Nigerians need to care more about democracy, raise fundamental questions about it, re-assess our performance from time to time and strive to leave a worthy legacy. The book is being published at a time the polity is characterized by serious challenges of development, a damning display of astonishing wealth of few and the misery of the many as the system continues to be fettered by the diminishing patriotism, declining productivity, selfishness and greed. The corrosive forces of primitive patronage, compulsive compromise and complex corruption are being compounded by the gross deficit in internal party democracy to pose serious challenges to the consolidation of democracy and good governance. It is hoped that other intellectuals will be inspired by Femi Adelegan’s feat and tackle these crucial issues with a similar sense of purpose and in the national interest.
Professor Tunde Adeniran, OFR; Nigeria’s Former Federal Minister of Education & Nigeria’s former Ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany
CHAPTERS/TOPICS — TABLE OF CONTENTDedication
TECHNIQUES OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT IN GOVERNANCE —FOREWORD By Senator David A.B. Mark, GCON — One of the most important issues addressed by the United Nations, upon its formation is ‘The Universal Declaration of Human Rights’ (1949) whose Article 19, states that “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; and this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference; and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.’’ This UN Declaration that was designed to promote the flow of information shows the extent to which the global community recognizes its potency and importance. One of the most prominent features that has emerged from the democratic culture is the power of the media, that is widely referred to as of ‘Fourth Estate of the Realm,’ because of its responsibility of engaging in surveillance activity as the ‘’watchdogs of the society.’’
The importance of information flow is underscored by the fact that democracy, the most popular form of government cannot thrive without free speech and free press. For instance, there is an enormous responsibility imposed on the media by Section 22 of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (as amended) which empowers it to hold the government accountable to the people. More importantly, the Freedom of Information Act has been passed to strengthen the media to perform its constitutional role in the society. But information management goes beyond reports fed into the various channels of communication. It includes how to manage information by all purveyors of this highly important activity, for the attainment of set objectives. It is an acknowledged fact that information flow has to be regulated; otherwise, the resultant chaos would prove to be too costly for organizations, and human societies to manage.
Over the years, information management has come to be recognized as an important aspect of human existence, particularly with regard to the promotion of peace and order, even on a global level. The power of information is such that it could make or mar, depending on the type of information fed into the channel of communication, how it is constructed, and the objectives of the sender. Every society needs information for continued existence and survival. No society could thrive without information. For any government to succeed in accordance with established governance principles, it must have in place a coordinated information dissemination system with which information would be processed for consumption. At all times, the communicative feedback mechanism must be oiled to ensure complete information flow.
I should like to observe that we live in a world of pervasive extreme poverty whose economic lopsidedness could be politically dangerous, as the gap between the rich and the poor countries continues to widen. This is an age in which the whole world in engrossed in efforts at dissolving international barriers and forging new global agenda that are inspired by contemporary requirements of advancing development in all parts of the world, through the reduction of prevailing inequalities. Humanity requires information to be able to progress and interact meaningfully, and these have to be correctly processed to achieve the desired results. Proper information management is also required for effectiveness in organizations, and even in family units.
My experiences, first, as a military governor of Niger State (1985-1988) Federal Minister of Communications (1988-1990) Commander of the Nigerian Army Signals Corps in the 1990s, during my service in the Nigerian Army; and later as President of the Senate of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2007-2015) opened my eyes sufficiently to the importance of information-sharing and management. It is noteworthy, that the end of the Cold War has witnessed a reduction in armaments and weapons of destruction. However, threats to world peace and understanding, which were expected to subside four decades ago, are still prominent in practically all the regions of the world. Humanity, definitely requires well-processed information to promote peace, international cooperation, and the desired economic and political growth, in view of our joint commitment to the pursuit of evolving a new global social order.
This book: ‘’Techniques of Information Management in Governance’’ by Femi Adelegan, a highly experienced and talented professional, treats exhaustively, patterns and techniques of managing information, that is sine-qua-non for human survival. The compilation highlights the relevance of information to inclusive pace and pattern of growth, which are considered interlinked, and therefore, need to be addressed together, as critical factors for achieving a high, sustainable growth required in societies and organizations. The author did not stop at making assertions. He has matched his postulations with appropriate suggestions of policies and actions that would enable organizations function well in information management. His theoretical and practical postulations, also enable readers to understand better, the importance of a well managed and coordinated information flow to the success of those engaged in governance, in both the public and private sectors.
The author has asserted, and correctly too, that there are indications that the New World Information Order, if not properly addressed, poses a grave danger to the continued survival of the developing world, and even the entire human race. And commendably, he goes ahead to proffer solutions. I commend Femi Adelegan, an author of books on various aspects of ‘Governance’ for generating literature on this critical area of human activity. It is evident that the author has been able to write very authoritatively on this important subject as he does, given his background, as well as the author’s acquisition of a rich blend of knowledge and maturity in top sensitive positions in which he has served over the last three decades.
I recommend ‘Techniques of Information Management in Governance’ for reading by all who wish to know more about the intricate and sensitive art of information-sharing and management, and particularly to all media practitioners, students of various courses in Communications, Public Policy, Management and International Relations, for the understanding of the highly critical issues pertaining to the salient issues treated in this book.
It is indeed a great honour to be requested to write the Foreword to this publication.
Senator David A.B. Mark, GCON — President of the Senate of Federal Republic of Nigeria (2007-2015)
PREFACE/ENDORSEMENT: By Dr. Yemi Farounbi: The task of information management is very burdensome. It is more pronounced in a period of great challenges like the one currently being witnessed all over the world. Information dissemination is a very complex process that demands and commands the appropriate attention. To a large extent, information is central to human existence and could be regarded as the fulcrum on which human interaction rests, at this period when humanity lives in the most interdependent age in history.
People tend to take information management and communication for granted given the fact that all human beings engage in information-sharing every second. Modernization and the swiftness with which the world changes, has brought information to the fore as the most critical ingredient for facilitating societal and national integration, global peace, and international understanding. Information management cuts across a broad area of human activity that accommodates advertising, marketing, public relations, employee relations, reputation management, media relations, and information technology.
The concept of bridging the communication gap between the advanced and developing world has become a critical task because it is one of the most potent ways of preventing chaos, while also promoting growth and development through fostering human interactions for the evolution of a better world. Evidently, the fate of humanity is strongly tied to how well they understand one another in an increasingly globalized world. And this has a direct effect on effectiveness and ineffectiveness of nations, enlightened self-interests and pursuit of those objectives that could make the global community a better place to live in through cooperation for development.
Femi Adelegan’s new publication titled: ‘’Techniques of Information Management in Governance’’ could not have come at a better time than now, when the whole world is paying particular attention to problems associated with development through the implementation of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that is a global agenda prompted by the renewal of world leaders’ political commitments to sustainable development in order to promote integration and coherence of policies and the implementation of actions in the social, economic and environmental areas. If the SDGs must succeed, communicators have a great role to play in assisting growth and development at all levels of governmental activity.
Attaining the objectives of managing information for overall development, even at the global level has over the years tasked the ingenuity, foresight, and skills of professional image managers and communicators, including Advertisers, Brand Managers, Public Relations practitioners, Reputation Managers, Journalists, media practitioners and those engaged in the information technology sector. Part of the responsibilities of the communicators and information managers is to mobilize the human race for ‘’sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development’’ by year 2030, as contained in the UN-SDGs agenda.
It is to be noted that the job of the image manager is daily becoming more complex because of ever-changing technology and the sophistication of consumers of information. The advent of the ‘New Media’, in addition to the increasing relevance of the ‘Conventional Media’ has further enlarged the volume of information fed into the various channels of communication, while also widening the audience and scope of coverage. It is through these channels that foreign nations form opinions about other nations. The truth is that most of the information that is released in the media about a nation, in addition to information from other sources is used to analyze developments from which conclusions are drawn.
Femi Adelegan has demonstrated professional excellence through this compilation. He commendably and patriotically calls for restraint on the part of media practitioners in the developing world who publish large volumes of negative news about their nations, without bothering about national interest. According to him, ‘’foreign media, and even embassies and high commissions of foreign nations use such reports and perceptions in the local media to build their reports that are used in foreign countries and their media. ‘’Bits and pieces of adverse and destructive comments in the local media are used to form opinions.’’ It would, accordingly, seem appropriate for the media to balance their reports and give greater consideration to those issues that are in national interest.
This publication comes as a worthy addition to the corpus of knowledge by a veteran information manager, administrator, strategic planner and publicist, whose technocratic instincts kept him in corridors of power for several years. The author’s broad analyses of the pattern of information flow in both the public and private sectors, as well as the techniques available for managing information and communication in the establishment and the society would most certainly enrich the knowledge of the professional, while also enabling those engaged in managing organizations in top positions to recognize the power of information and its usage for the attainment of societal and organizational agenda.
I recommend this highly educative and informative publication for use in institutions of learning, and for reading by all those who wish to understand the intricacies involved in information management in governance, and the techniques recommended for managing and deploying information for public consumption and governance procedures.
Dr. Yemi Farounbi, OON Nigeria’s former Ambassador of Nigeria to the Republic of Philippines, and the Kingdom of Cambodia.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
USEFUL GUIDES ON FOREIGN TRAVELS, PORTS/BORDER POSTS & IMMIGRATION MATTERS: Steps to Successful Foreign Trips
FOREWORD: By Joe C. Keshi, OON: In my over three decades of service in Nigeria’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, I discovered that nothing gives a Foreign Service Officer, and indeed all officials of Government serving in foreign missions, and also at the headquarters of their Ministries many pains than the negative image of their countries caused by circumstances beyond their control. This makes it imperative for policies to be put in place to enlighten and educate Nigerians who travel abroad about their obligations to themselves and to the nation, as a way of arresting some of the activities of travellers that bring the country to disrepute.
There are many reasons why people travel to other lands or countries. In the developing world, the disturbing trend of poverty and human-induced problems have been the major contributory factors to the feverish struggle by a large number of people to travel to the Western world, without counting the costs of such visits/trips. Regrettably, precious human lives have been lost through desperate attempts to emigrate illegally by citizens of different countries in Africa, and tales of Africans inhumanity to Africans engaged in prohibited travels have made the headlines. International Conventions allow for the regulation of rules guiding travels and entry into other countries by nationals of different nations. Because the fields of global development are changing rapidly, and particularly for reasons of curbing the menace of increasing terrorism all over the world, international regulations on travelling continue to be altered, in accordance with national security policies of nations. It is for this purpose, and principally to enlighten Nigerians who wish to travel out of the country, for whatever reasons, that this book has been written.
Authored by Femi Adelegan, an experienced writer and technocrat, who is blessed with a wide experience and exposure, in addition to his wide circulating publications on Good Governance, this book, ‘USEFUL GUIDES ON TRAVELS, BORDER POSTS/PORTS & IMMIGRATION MATTERS’ has been put together at a time when the need for greater public enlightenment about issues raised in the publication has obtruded itself as a result of diverse matters that have to be confronted frontally. I got to know Femi while serving as the Consul-General at Nigeria’s Consulate in Atlanta, United States in 2004. He was then the Chief Private Secretary/Special Adviser to the Governor of Osun State on Policies, Programmes & Plans Monitoring. In this capacity, he was the Head of the Governor’s secretariat and supervised the state government’s relations with Foreign Missions in Nigeria, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Nigeria’s Missions abroad. Our paths later crossed again, when I was the National Coordinator of the Nigeria National Volunteer Service, an agency of the Federal Government of Nigeria that was created to mobilize and coordinate the Nigerian Diaspora engagement with the Nigerian nation.
The author, in this book carefully examines issues like why Nigerians love to travel, the costs of travels and justification for embarking on trips abroad, preparations and documentations for the trips, including immigration and diplomatic matters involved, with intent to educate prospective applicants for travel documentation, as well as all classes of users of the ports/border posts on conducts expected of them before, during, and after their planned visits to foreign nations. The author also broadly treats how to use land, air and sea border/ports/posts and what to expect at these important exit and entry points. He also quite aptly raises the issue of the need for self-restraint by a few Nigerians, whose nefarious activities abroad, alongside official corruption and mismanagement continue to cast Nigeria in negative light globally. He offers sound professional advice to those involved, to help them guard against such practices that have negative implications for Nigeria and other innocent Nigerians. He equally counsels about the need for Nigerians to view the country’s Missions abroad as useful places that they could visit for consular services required. Nigeria’s Embassies/High Commissions are there by virtue of Article 55 of the Charter of the United Nations, signed in San Francisco in 1945. It recognizes the need for the peoples of the world to collaborate, and therefore, supports the ‘’creation of conditions of stability and well-being, which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples.’’
One notable feature in this book is Femi Adelegan’s strong plea to Nigerians to stop illegal migration abroad due to the harshness of the economy; but stay at home to join hands to build a truly great Nigeria. This, he says, could be realized by enforcing good governance through legitimate and democratic options. The author equally encourages Nigerians to abandon sycophancy and other ills that have plagued the nation, and resolve to make the people the key components of governance who could take the political class to task. They could do this by empowering themselves democratically to choose/elect their representatives freely and democratically. The author states that: ‘’Nigerians must show that they are the masters of people in Government and demand for good governance as of right. ‘’People must discontinue the practice of taking several pages of advertisements in newspapers and airtime on electronic media to thank government functionaries who commission projects in their areas; for what politicians promised to do while campaigning for votes; and for duties they are paid to do.’’
To all intents and purposes, Femi Adelegan is eminently placed to put this compilation together given his vast experiences as a sound and tested professional with useful links in areas touched by the publication. I commend the author’s observation that: ‘’Many intending travellers are not adequately informed about the pros and cons of visiting other nations for different reasons’’ and that ‘’Planning for trips overseas for tourism or business entails more than what most people envisage.’’ The author invites attention to the global fight against terror that has heightened the level of security measures put in place at border posts globally, and posited that preparations commence with the applications for various travel documents. Procurement of a travelling passport issued by the Federal Government of Nigeria, through the Nigeria Immigration Service is usually the first requirement. However, foreign trips do not end until the traveller successfully goes through Immigration formalities at the land, air, or sea ports of Nigeria and foreign nations being visited. It is also important to bear in mind that possession of an entry visa does not automatically translate into automatic entry by visitors at the border posts of foreign nations. Similarly, entry into Nigeria is not complete until entry clearance officers permit visitors to enter at Nigeria’s border posts; and the Nigerian Customs Service, in the case of goods and services, acting in concert with other government agencies at the ports.
Indeed, this publication could not have come at a better time than now, when the whole world is united about the need for good governance, and combatting terror; issues that have compelled nations to continue to tighten their immigration policies, and at a period when the federal government of Nigeria is introducing a new border control and immigration system to ease operations at the nation’s border posts, coupled with the introduction of a multi bio-metric system that is capable of generating a database of travelers and users of the ports. This book is ‘’A Must Read’’ for all who wish to be guided on how to have smooth passages at border posts in Nigeria and abroad, attaining the objective of doing business with ease in Nigeria, and for Nigerians to conduct themselves in an orderly manner while on visits abroad.
Ambassador Joe C. Keshi, OON — Retired Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
TABLE OF CONTENTS
WARNING! ….BY THE AUTHOR – FEMI ADELEGAN: I should like to make it abundant clear that this book harbours no definite assurance that readers, and all those who may consult this publication will secure your travel documents, or pass through border posts without completing the due process. Largely, it serves to educate intending travellers for business and pleasure; and other other lawful intentions and place readers and travellers on higher pedestals, with brighter chances of scaling the hurdles of the procument of travelling documents, on account of proper understanding of immigration and border post regulations and conducts. It is also written to further enlighten those engaged in immigration and border post activities on their work since learning is a continuous process. The populace using border ports/posts for leisure and business are also guaranteed assurances that they would gain some useful knowledge from this compilation, particularly about procedures and requirements at border posts; whether travelling for business or pleasure. In this connection, reading this book would only promote the chances of smooth conducts and procedures, that are necessary documents for foreign travels, based on the guidance provided. It also highlights how best users of ports for private and commercial purposes could best conduct their activities by complying with regulations. This publication also strongly counsels against illegal migration, as well as other social and criminal acts related to legal and illegal trips and migration. Additionally, this compilation counsels strongly against false declarations in business transactions at the ports, and in conducting maritime activities.
The first important issue to note is that ignorance is not an excuse in Law. Everybody that is an adult (categorization differs from nation to nation) is liable for his/her actions and inactions. In Nigeria, you are considered an adult upon the attainment of the age of 18 years, in accordance with Section 29 on the extant Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (as amended) which states that “full age” means the age of eighteen years and above. Breaking regulations meet with commensurate penalties. Forgery is a crime. It is an offence against the State or Government, for anybody, or intending traveller to forge a Nigerian Travelling Passport which remains the property of the Federal Government of Nigeria; or any document at all. It is equally a criminal action for anybody to forge any document for the purpose of utilizing same to travel, or to procure visas for foreign travels, or entry into Nigeria. Going through Air/Sea/Land borders too demands absolute compliance with regulations. Therefore, this publication does not encourage sharp practices of any form for the purposes stated therein. Visa and passport applicants, and all users of ports are advised to be as honest as possible in making their documentation. It is also important to know that the streets of advanced nations are not paved with gold or silver; and these nations also have their peculiar developmental challenges; and therefore, would not wish that dislocations occur to their developmental plans.
Intending travellers are informed that the picture of the advanced world that they conjure; or may be misled to believe, are usually in fact far from reality. Only a few people resident abroad who visit Nigeria occasionally disclose the type of menial jobs they perform abroad; but give false picture of how ‘’rosy’’ life is abroad. One interesting fact is that several Nigerians in foreign lands long to return home for various reasons, including the fact that there is nowhere like home, as foreign countries continue to tighten their immigration and work regulations. It is also getting increasingly difficult for emigrants to settle and make a living in the First World, because of the global economic situation that is also making these countries to tighten their immigration regulations to prevent immigants that could be threats to these nations, from entering these foreign countries, following the need to protect the socio-economic and political interests of their nations.
In the past few years following global economic turndown and terrorism that know no boundaries, nations of the world are taking precautionary measures in order to be able to cope with the requirements of the emerging times. At the time of the compilation of this report in 2017 for instance, the British government claimed that over 29,000 Nigerians are on their radar as illegal immigrants and are being investigated for deportation once it is proven that they are residing in the United Kingdom illegally. If eventually deported, these illegal migrants will have to return to Nigeria to start life afresh. Intending migrants are reminded that most countries do not take human trafficking and trafficking in hard drugs/narcotics lightly. In some countries, particularly Asia and the Arab nations, drug couriers are summarily executed to serve as deterrence to other intending drug couriers and merchants yet to be apprehended. So, why would someone jump into committing suicide when there are other avenues of livelihood? The problem is that youths now look for the easiest way to make money. It is also very sad to note that several people commit innocent mistakes by aiding and supporting illegal migration without knowing that they are really doing so. But regrettably, ignorance is not an excuse in law.
PRESENT ONLY GENUINE DOCUMENTS Please note that you are not being scared from attempting to file an application for any form of documentation for border post activities, the issuance of an entry visa into any nation of your choice, or proper documentation of commercial activities at the ports. Even while conducting your transactions, including clearing your goods at the ports, please engage in very clean transactions. Additionally, it is worth the troubles if an applicant makes a thorough enquiry about the nation to be visited, and weighs the plans to be made to travel, and the reasons to be pleaded in the application to be made. It is in the interest of all applicants to ensure that only genuine documents are presented by them for consideration of their applications at Embassies/High Commissions of foreign countries, at which their applications are to be considered. The issue of travelling as a status symbol should be actively discouraged.
It is important for an intending traveller to consider carefully, the reasons that warrant an intended trip abroad. In most cases, visa issuing countries will require from intending travellers, ability to provide proof to finance the trip, or be sponsored on the trip by a relevant sponsor, so that the traveller does not constitute himself/herself into a liability in the country to be visited. The requirements vary, and these are clearly stipulated in the documents provided by foreign Missions. These are contained on the websites of foreign Missions. The penalty for the presentation of forged documents varies. It could constitute a criminal action as in forging documents for financial and commercial transactions at the ports. For visa applications, it could, in some cases be up to a ten-year ban imposed for perjury and presentation of forged documents, as in the case of the United Kingdom, or even outright ban. Penal code varies from one nation to another.
It is most advisable for entry visa applicants and users of border posts to be as honest as possible with the presentation of supporting documents for the evaluation of their documentations. Uniform personnel, particularly immigration officials have enormous discretionary powers. Immigration officials have the right to turn a visitor back or prevent an intending visitor from travelling out if there are convincing reasons that the trip might not be in national interest. In the case of entry visas, please note that Nigeria’s foreign missions exist, partly to render services to nationals who visit, or are resident in foreign countries covered by the Nigerian Embassy/High Commission. Therefore, long term visitors are advised to register their stay with Nigeria’s missions abroad. Then, learn to live within the bounds of the laws of those countries. Please note that by adhering to immigration regulations of foreign countries, you would be saving over 170 million Nigerians, and even generations yet unborn from potential embarrassment, since one single dirty act by a Nigerian attracts opprobrium for Nigeria and Nigerians generally.
A Book on How Nigeria Is Indelibly Challenging World Christianity —- NIGERIA’S LEADING LIGHTS OF THE GOSPEL – Revolutionaries in Worldwide Christianity – Abuja –NIGERIA: Author Femi Adelegan’s nonfiction book highlights Nigeria’s indelible contributions to global evangelism
Excerpt from Book Reviewer: Author Femi Adelegan’s nonfiction book:“NIGERIA’S LEADING LIGHTS OF THE GOSPEL: Revolutionaries In Worldwide Christianity, patterned after GOD’S GENERALS by Roberts Liardon, unearths the mysterious persistence of God’s calling, the often stubborn resistance of the called, the eventual surrender, and the justification of the calling of notable Nigerian priests of God. Many of these characters did not enter into their canonical office without a few faltering steps; but again, like the Biblical Peter, some of them had cause to doubt the purpose of their calling and felt miserably sorry at some point in their terestrial journeys. But then, the One who prayed for Peter to be restored is an eternal advocate whose gift and calling are without repentance. It is very sobering to imagine the great patience of our Lord who stood at the door of the hearts of many of today’s great preachers knocking for so long, expecting a positive answer. Like the story of Peter the fisherman, in the Book of Luke chapter 5 verses 1-11, many of today’s leading lights of the gospel met Jesus in their state of frustration” The similarity between those miraculous acts recorded in the Bible, and the ones documented in NIGERIA’S LEADING LIGHTS OF THE GOSPEL goes a long way to confirm that indeed, Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today and forever.’’– Reviewer, Bamidele Salam.
EXCERPT: One significant achievement of this book is the ability of Femi Adelegan to highlight Nigeris’s indelible impact on global Christianity and our unique African imprint on Christian spirituality and evangelistic outreach. Christianity in Nigeria has not only produced shining lights, but the Church in Nigeria has both blessed, enriched, as well as challenged World Christianity in the areas of self-propagation, self-government, creative adaptability, and fidelity to the faith once delivered to the Saints. Like the heroes of faith who made the Honour Roll in Hebrews Chapter Eleven, and like the African Fathers of the Early Church after the Apostolic Age, like Tertulian, Clement, Origen, Cyprian, Athanasius and Augustine, our Nigeria’s Shining Lights, both militant and triumphant have now been exposed to the gaze of the Church – local, national and universal. – Retired Archbishop Lawrence Ayo Ladigbolu; Methodist Church, Nigeria
FOREWORD: This book is a witness of God’s love and grace of God to men who are prepared to walk with Him to advance His Kingdom here on earth. I applaud and commend the author of the book, Femi Adelegan, for his deep biblical insights of how many of these ministers of the gospel became God’s favourite vessels in propagating the gospel and enthroning righteousness in the nation. – Gen. (Dr) Yakubu Gowon, Nigeria’s Head of State (1966-1975) & Chairman, NIGERIA PRAYS MOVEMENT
An excerpt from the Author: ‘’This work is a comprehensive compilation on Nigerian ministers of the Gospel, who are spreading the Gospel according to Jesus Christ; contributing tremendously to the global move to free people from the clutches of the devil, The 43 ecumenical personalities in this compilation have contributed tremendously to the spread of Christianity and have been mightily used by God to liberate the oppressed and those in bondage even beyond the shores of Nigeria. As readers peruse, they will most probably be filled with feelings of empathy that would undoubtedly strengthen them to tap into grace and flow in His divine wisdom while enjoying the mercy of God. Afterall, it is perfectly permissible in the Scriptures for us to covet spiritual things. All who lust for divine service must be prepared to enjoy all the God-given privileges by walking with God’’
About the Author : Femi Adelegan is a time-tested bureaucrat, technocrat, writer, author and publisher. Adelegan is a church leader and prolific writer spiritual resources and Christian grace that can inspire and challenge many others to love the Lord more, and to serve Him with greater zeal and devotion so that more and more disciples can be raised to spread scriptural holiness throughout our land and our world.
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THE PART TO PLAY – An autobiography of Chief S.T. Adelegan; Deputy-Speaker, Western Nigeria House of Assembly
Author Shadrach Adelegan brings a service-driven life to focus
ABUJA, Nigeria – Shadrach Adelegan’s nonfiction book: ‘The Part to Play’’ tells the story of the life of a humanist; patriot, politician, educator, and statesman characterized by patriotism and dedication to the cause of humanity. Tells the story of the issues that led to the collapse of First Republic Democracy in Nigeria
Excerpt from the book: 1962 LEGISLATIVE DISTURBANCES ON THE FLOOR OF THE WESTERN REGION HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY: Chairs began to fly in different directions. One located Chief Awolowo but was quickly intercepted by Chief Alfred Rewane. There was a free-for-all fight, a situation that attracted tear gas from the security men. As soon as the tear gas was thrown, the whole place became deserted as the honourable men fled. The Speaker – Adeleke Adedoyin, myself, Chief Obafemi Awolowo and Chief Jonathan Odebiyi managed to find our ways to the Speaker’s Office. There, Chief Awolowo telephoned the Prime Minister, Alhaji Tafawa Balewa to inform him of the rascality displayed by the people on the floor of the House. Mutually, we should agree to keep decency in the House.’’
COMMENDATIONS: Hansard – Official Bulletin of the Western Region House of Assembly – 6th April, 1965
The Hon. Chief S.L. Akintola (Premier): ‘’Perhaps I may express the sentiments of both Sides of the House. We pay you, Sir, the commendation that is due to you for the efficient manner in which you have been able to carry on and discharge the duties of the Speaker of this honourable House. (Cheers). It is unfortunate that ill-health prevented the Hon. Speaker of this House from attending this important Budget Meeting but, in spite of the short notice, you came to our rescue as an experienced Deputy Speaker who has been able to assimilate and acquire a great deal of practical knowledge. For this, we are very much indebted to you for the successful completion of this Budget Meeting and I think that your performance on this occasion augurs well for the future because you have discharged your duties remarkably well, so efficiently and so charmingly, that the Members of the Opposition will always like to see you on the Chair.
COMMENDATION – The Hon. Alhaji D.S Adegbenro: (Leader of Opposition): Mr. Deputy Speaker, Sir, I like to associate myself with the views and sentiments expressed by the hon. Premier. When the appointment of Mr. Speaker was proposed, I was consulted, and I argued that you, Mr. Deputy Speaker, Sir, ought to have been promoted to the post of the substantive Speaker. I was informed that there were some difficulties in the rank and file of the NNDP and I had to agree that you still hold your post as Deputy Speaker and in spite of the fact that you happen to be the Deputy Speaker, you have discharged your duties impartially and you deserve our commendation as well. My Deputy Speaker, Sir, we congratulate you for being an efficient and impartial Speaker’’.
EXCERPT FROM FOREWORD: “Adelegan’s handling of the proceedings of the defunct post-emergency Western Region House of Assembly as Speaker Pro Tempore, was commended by the political party in power and the opposition who saw Adelegan as an impartial arbiter. This publication will surely be useful to students of History and politics. — Archdeacon Emmanuel Oladipo Alayande OFR, LLD, JP.
AT THE ST ANDREWS TEACHERS TRAINING COLLEGE, OYO: My bravery and frankness endeared me to our Principal, George Button. On one occasion in the night, we were supposed to be sleeping. All lights must be off. But we were flagrant. We were busy writing letters and suddenly, we heard the footsteps of the Principal. We quickly put off the lights but I did not put off mine. He ordered us all out but nobody was ready to volunteer the truth. I opened up and told him ‘I was not sleeping because I had some letters to write”. And this was exactly what I was doing when we heard your footstep sir. The Principal punished us all. But he developed love and adoration for me simply because he knew I would always say the truth.’’
Publishers; Terrific Investment & Consulting offers consultancy services in diverse fields including book publishing & investment promotion. Please contact us at: firstname.lastname@example.org, or email@example.com, or by phone on +234-8033977394. www.terrificinvestment.com, www.terrificheadlines.com; For our social development campaign on FAMILY VALUES, please visit: www.couplesofvituesadvalues.com, ###
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HARD COPIES OF THE BOOK PUBLICATIONS ARE AVAILABLE ON REQUEST
HOWEVER, HARD COPIES OF THE BOOK TITLED: THE PART TO PLAY ARE NOT AVAILABLE UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE
HARD COPIES OF NIGERIA’S LEADING OF THE GOSPEL – REVOLUTIONARIES IN WORLDWIDE CHRISTIANITY ARE AVAILABLE AT THE FOLLOWING LOCATIONS: